10 Short replicative cycle HerpesvirinaeHuman herpesvirus 1 -HHV1Herpes simplex type 1-HSV1Human Herpesvirus 2 -HHV2Herpes simplex type 2 -HSV2Short replicative cycleRapid cytopathologyBroad host range
11 Animations of HSV Receptor Binding RNA Transcription in productive infectionLatent InfectionsDNA ReplicationEncapsidation and ReleaseClick here to view Dr. Ed. Wagner, superb series of animations on HSV on the internet
18 Varicellavirus genus in herpesvirus family human herpesvirus 3 (HHV3) varicella-zoster virus
19 Multiplication Genes replicated in specific order Immediate early genesregulatory proteinsEarly genesenzymes for replicating viral DNALate genesstructural proteinsOccurs in host cell nucleus
20 Latent InfectionsALL herpes viruses can establish latent infections. The viral genome may become incorporated into the host DNA or remain extrachromosomalLatent viruses can be reactivated by stress, menstruation or uv lightReactivation may be asymptomatic or lead to mild or severe disease.
21 Diagnosis Isolation of virus by tissue culture herpevirinae cause cytopathic effectsintranuclear fluorescence of scrapings using fluorescent antibodiesPCR being developedCMV retinitis is diagnosed clinically
22 Prevention of Herpesvirus VaccinesVZV vaccine being licensedHSV1, HSV2, & CMV vaccines being developedPassive immunizationpooled immunoglobulinhyperimmune globulin
23 Anti-herpesvirus drugs Idoxuridine- herpetic keratitisTrifuridine-herpetic keratitisVidarabine - wide range of applicationsAcylovir-wide range of applicationsGanciclovir -CMV
25 Epidemiology of Herpes Simplex HSV1 is transmitted by kissing or other contact with salivaHSV2 is spread by sexual contactHSV2 is spread nosocomially
26 Mucocutaneous infections caused by Herpes simplex GingivostomatisHerpes simplex labialis (cold sores)Genital herpesKeratitisWhitlows- health care workersHerpes gladiatorum- wrestlers
27 Herpes simplex type 1 Herpes labialis. cold sores or fever blisters. text: page 569.2-12 day incubation period.gingivostomatitis -- vesicles rupture.latent virus in ganglia -- Herpetic keratoconjunctivitis -- ulcers can be identified by fluorescein staining.
31 Transmission: HSV1Transmitted by direct contact such as kissing or fondling; very common with young children.Good personal hygiene does curtail the transmission.
32 Treatment HSV1The first drugs were used to treat conjunctivitis and keratitisIododeoxyuridinetrifluridineadenine arabinosideacyclovir
33 Treatment HSV1 Iododeoxyuridine: direct application to the cornea Trifluridine, Keratitis: direct applicationAdenine arabinoside: direct application to the cornea. Intravenously injected, it reduces mortality from herpes encephalitis.Acyclovir: is now the drug of choice, is the least toxic. Can be used topically, orally and intravenously.
34 Genital Herpes HSV2primary infection: vulva, vagina, cervix. glans penis, prepuce or penile shaft.fever, malaise, anorexia, bilateral inguinal adenopathy.sexually transmitted - highest rate among young adults.Patients on immunosuppressive drugs
35 Neonatal Herpes Simplex infants acquire the virus passing through the birth canal.disseminated herpes - newborns; premature infants susceptible
37 Treatment HSV2Acyclovir does not cure the initial infection, but because it prevents the attachment of released virus from an infected cell, it ameliorates the disease. With aggressive treatment eventually the viruses disappear. It is not an effective cure for the latent stage.