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Presentation on theme: "Pronouns."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pronouns

2 Personal Pronouns A pronoun is a word that takes the place of one or more nouns. The most frequently used pronouns are called personal pronouns. They refer to people or things.

3 You and I will meet later.
Subject Pronouns A subject pronoun is used as the subject of a sentence. She is my best friend. It is my dog. Does he know the answer? You and I will meet later.

4 Object Pronouns An object pronoun is used as the
direct/indirect object or the object of a preposition. Give the book to me. (OP) The teacher gave her a reprimand. (IO) I will tell you a story. (IO) Susan read it to them. (DO, OP)

5 List of Personal Pronouns
Singular Plural I we you you he, she, it they Subject Pronouns me us you you him, her, it them Object Pronouns

Read the following sentences. Can you tell to whom the word She refers? Arachne competes with Athena. She weaves skillfully. The sentence is not clear because the word She could refer to either Arachne or Athena. Sometimes you must repeat a noun or rewrite the sentence. Arachne competes with Athena. Athena weaves skillfully.

The noun or group of words to which pronoun refers to is called its antecedent. When you use a pronoun, you should be sure that it refers to its antecedent clearly. Be especially careful when you use the pronoun they. Read the following sentence. They have several books about Greek myths at the library. Continue

The meaning of They is unclear. The sentence can be improved by rewriting it in the following manner. Several books about myths are available at the library.

When using pronouns, you must also make sure that they agree with their antecedents in number (singular or plural) and gender. The gender of a noun may be masculine (male), feminine (female), or neuter (referring to things). Notice how the pronouns on the next slide agree with their antecedents. Continue

1. The myth of Arachne is amusing. I enjoyed it. 2. The bystanders see Athena. They watch her at the loom. In the first sentence, myth is the antecedent of the pronoun it. In the second sentence, bystanders is the antecedent of They, and Athena is the antecedent of her.

11 Using Pronouns Correctly
Subject pronouns are used in compound subjects, and object pronouns are used in compound objects. He and Carmen wrote a report on the subject. (Not Him and Carmen) Tell John and me about Hercules. (Not John and I) Continue

12 Using Pronouns Correctly
A preposition takes an object, just as many verbs do. The object of a preposition can be simple or compound. In either case, use an object pronoun as the object of the preposition. Lee read a famous myth to me. Lee read a famous Roman myth to John and me. Continue

13 Using Pronouns Correctly
If you are not sure of which form of the pronoun to use, say the sentence aloud with only the pronoun as the subject or the object. Your ear will tell you which form is correct. Whenever the pronoun I is part of a compound subject, it should always be placed after the other parts of the subject. Similarly, when the pronoun me is part of a compound object, it should go after the other parts of the object. Continue

14 Using Pronouns Correctly
Lee and I read some ancient Roman myths. (Not I and Lee) Mythology interests Lee and me. (Not me and Lee). Continue

15 Using Pronouns Correctly
In formal writing and speech use a subject pronoun after a linking verb. The subject pronoun that follows a linking verb is called the predicate pronoun (like the predicate nominative). The writer of this report was she. It is I. Continue

16 Possessive Pronouns A possessive pronoun is a pronoun that shows who or what has something. A possessive pronoun may take the place of a possessive noun. Read the following sentences. Notice the possessive nouns and the possessive pronouns that replace them. Continue

17 Possessive Pronouns Homer’s story is famous. His story is famous.
This story is Homer’s. This story is his. Possessive nouns are in green. Possessive pronouns are in red. Continue

18 Possessive Pronouns Used before nouns Used alone ours yours theirs
Possessive pronouns have two forms. One form is used before a noun. The other form is used alone. ours yours theirs mine his, hers, its Used alone our your their my his, her, its Used before nouns Plural Singular Continue

19 Possessive Pronouns Possessive pronouns are not written with apostrophes. The pronoun its, for example, shows possession. The word it’s, on the other hand, is a contraction of it is. Read the following sentences. Notice the meaning of the words in red type. Its central character is Odysseus. (possessive pronoun) It’s about the adventures of Odysseus. (contraction of It is)

20 How would Case 21 ask a personal pronoun question? YIKES
Which of the following sentences is complex (it has both a dependent and independent clause) and uses a plural, objective personal pronoun? A. Ms. Wells and he visited the museum last night. B. Although you told them about your trouble, Casey and Ralph could not help you. It will be a traumatic experience when Florida State loses. That boy never obeys, and he certainly is not nice. HINT…Eliminate the simple and compound sentences first. Then examine the pronouns in the complex sentences. Which one of the complex sentences has a plural, objective personal pronoun? That sentence is your answer!

21 And the answer is…B A. Ms. Wells and he visited the museum last night. – Eliminate this simple sentence. B. Although you told them about your trouble, Casey and Ralph could not help you. (Complex sentence…them is plural, objective pronoun…..ANSWER!!!!!!) It will be a traumatic experience when Florida State loses. (Complex sentence...the personal pronoun is singular and subjective…NOT THE ANSWER!!!) That boy never obeys, and he certainly is not nice. – Eliminate this compound sentence.

22 Indefinite Pronouns An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun that does not refer to a particular person, place, or thing. Does anyone know the story of Midas? Most indefinite pronouns are either singular or plural. Continue

23 Some Indefinite Pronouns
Singular Plural another everybody no one anybody everyone nothing anyone everything one anything much somebody each neither someone either nobody something both few many others several All, any, most, none and some can be singular or plural, depending on the phrase that follows them. Continue

24 All, Any, Most, None, and Some
For the pronouns that can be singular or plural, determine if the object of the preposition can be measured or if it can be counted. Measured…singular verbs will be used for correct pronoun/verb agreement. Counted…plural verbs will be used for correct pronoun/verb agreement

25 Measurable…Singular All of the water has drained out of the tub.
Water can be measured and not counted; therefore, you must use a singular verb like has. SINGULAR VERBS END IN -S

26 Countable…Plural None of the water spouts work, and I’m thirsty!
I can count water spouts; therefore a plural verb must be used. Remember that plural verbs DO NOT end in –S.

27 What can you measure? What can you count?
Measurable (singular) Countable (plural) (Make a list with your partners.) Sugar Hair Freedom milk (Make a list with your partners.) Sugar cubes Hair brushes Freedom riders Milk cartons

28 Some Indefinite Pronouns
When an indefinite pronoun is used as the subject, the verb must agree with it in number. Everyone discusses the plot. (singular) Both talk about King Minos. (plural) All of mythology is about beliefs and ideals. (singular) All of the myths are about beliefs and ideals. (plural) Continue

29 Some Indefinite Pronouns
Possessive pronouns often have indefinite pronouns as their antecedents. In such cases, the pronouns must agree in number. Note that in the first example the intervening prepositional phrase does not affect the agreement. Each of the characters has his or her motive. Several have conflict with their rivals. Continue

30 Reflexive Pronouns A reflexive pronoun refers to a noun or another pronoun and indicates that the same person or thing is involved. Reflexive pronouns are formed by adding –self or –selves to certain personal and possessive pronouns The woman found herself a book of folktales. Reflexive Pronoun Continue

31 Reflexive Pronouns Singular Plural myself yourself
himself, herself, itself ourselves yourselves themselves Sometimes hisself is mistakenly used for himself and theirselves for themselves. Avoid using hisself and theirselves. Continue

32 Intensive Pronouns An intensive pronoun is a pronoun that adds emphasis to a noun or pronoun already named. George himself bought a copy of American Tall Tales. He himself paid for the book. Continue

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