2 Learning ObjectivesLO 1 Summarize what people want and what organizations need from their leadersLO 2 Explain how a good vision helps you be a better leaderLO 3 Discuss the similarities and differences between leading and managingLO 4 Identify sources of power in organizationsLO 5 List personal traits and skills of effective leaders
3 Learning Objectives (cont.) LO 6 Describe behaviors that will make you a better leader and identify when the situation calls for them LO 7 Distinguish between charismatic and transformational leaders LO 8 Describe types of opportunities to be a leader in an organization
4 Leadership Leader One who influences others to attain goals The greater the number of followers, the greater the influenceAnd therefore the better leader you areDry, boring, understated…..Take that defn to its logical conclusion:The greater the number of followers, the greater the influenceIf you want a large number of followers, just get a big stick and herd them where you want them to go.Is that being a leader??????
5 The guy could influence a lot of people. And he could certainly force them to attain goalsBut would you call him a leader?
6 Sources of Power Legitimate Reward Expert Referent Coercive The leader with legitimate power has the right, or the authority, to tell others what to do;Simply because you’re the boss you can tell your subordinates what to doThink of this as POSITION POWERThe leader who has reward power influences others because she controls valued rewards [both intrinsic and extrinsic]As the boss, you do the performance reviewsRemember merit pay?The leader who has expert power has certain expertise or knowledge;MIS guysThe leader with referent power has personal characteristics that appeal to others;It could be the visionThe leader with coercive power has control over punishments; people comply to avoid those punishmentsIf your subordinate doesn’t do what you want, you can fire them
7 Center for Creative Leadership did study in 2008 in which it looked at these traditional sources of power and added three to themThe power of charisma is the influence that is generated by a leader’s style or persona.The power of relationships is the influence that leaders gain through their formal and informal networks both inside and outside of their organizations.The power of information is the control that is generated through the use of evidence deployed to make an argument.Note the 3 most importantNote the 1 least important
8 Center for Creative Leadership did study in 2008 in which it looked at these traditional sources of power and added three to themWhat we just saw was todayBut what about tomorrow?Which forms of power will be most important?IT’S THE ABILITY TO BUILD INTERPERSONAL CONNECTIONS.
9 Traditional Approaches to Understanding Leadership Trait approachBehavioral approachSituational approachTrait approachA leadership perspective that attempts to determine the personal characteristics that great leaders shareBehavioral approachA leadership perspective that attempts to identify what good leaders do—that is, what behaviors they exhibit.Situational approachLeadership perspective proposing that universally important traits and behaviors do not exist, and that effective leadership behavior varies from situation to situation.
11 Trait approach “Great Man” Theory A leadership perspective that attempts to determine the personal characteristics that great leaders share“Great leaders are born, not made.”These theories often portray great leaders as heroic, mythic and destined to rise to leadership when needed.Trait Theories:Assume that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership.Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders.But if particular traits are key features of leadership, then how do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders?This question is one of the difficulties in using trait theories to explain leadership.
12 Behavioral approach 2 types of leaders Task oriented People oriented But what about behaviors? Are successful leaders successful because know what should be done and have the courage to do those things?Behavioral approachA leadership perspective that attempts to identify what good leaders do—that is, what behaviors they exhibit.Behavioral theories of leadership are based upon the belief that great leaders are made, not born. Rooted in behaviorism, this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders not on mental qualities or internal states. According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation.Task performance orientedThe task concerned leaders are focusing their behaviours on the organizational structure, the operating procedures (S.O.P.) and they like to keep control. Task-oriented leaders are still concern with their staff motivation; however it's not their main concern.Actions taken to ensure that the work group or organization reaches its goals.They will favor behaviours that are in line with:InitiatingOrganizingClarifyingInformation GatheringPeople oriented (text calls “group maintenance behavours”)The people oriented leaders are focusing their behaviours on ensuring that the inner needs of the people are satisfied. Thus they will seek to motivate their staff through emphasizing the human relation. People oriented leaders still focus on the task and the results; they just achieve them through different means.Actions taken to ensure the satisfaction of group members, develop and maintain harmonious work relationships, and preserve the social stability of the groupLeaders with a people focus will have behaviours that are in line with:EncouragingObservingListeningCoaching and Mentoring
13 Behavioral approach 2 types of leaders LMX Task oriented People orientedLMXDyadic relationshipsIn-groupout-groupText talks about Leader-Member Exchange.Want to extend the comments of the authorsLXM focuses on dyadic rel’ships – between the supervisor and each individual employeeMeans that supervisor can different type of rel’ship with different employeesThis leads to the development of “in-group” and “out-group”In-GroupThe relationship between the leader and the follower is based on mutual trust, respect, liking, and reciprocal influence.The group members receive more information, influence than the rest of the subordinates.Additionally they are more dependable, highly involved and more communicative than the rest of subordinates.Out-GroupThe relationship between the leader and the follower is such that the leader uses traditional supervisory approach, and the employee helps the leader strictly based on his responsibilities as a subordinate, not further.In other words, they come to work, do the job, and then go home.
14 Leadership GridConcern for the task and concern for people aren’t mutually exclusive.This is reflected in the leadership gridThe Indifferent or Impoverished (1,1)These leaders have minimal concern for people and production. Their priority is to fly under the radar while they content to seek solutions that won't bring any negative focus to themselves or their department. Preserving their employment, position as well as their seniority is what drives their elusive and evading behaviors. In short, the indifferent leaders are ineffective and are sorely lacking in any of the traits that can be attributed to successful and effective leaders.Impact on employees:Employees have a high degree of dissatisfactionNo harmony within the groupHigh turn overImpact on organization:Inefficient operationThe Country Club or Accommodating (1, 9) THE GREAT COMPROMISEThese leaders will go above and beyond to ensure that the needs and desires of his employees are met. These leaders are making the assumption that their staff will yield maximum results as they are likely to be self-motivated when they are lead in such environment. These leaders will have behaviours that will yield and comply with the needs of their staff. The productivity of the group however, can suffer from the lack of attention on tasks.Employees are HappyGood team harmonyLow productivityThe Status Quo or Middle-of-the-Road (5, 5)These leaders balance out the needs of their staff with those of the organization, while not adequately achieving either. These leaders will balance and compromise their decisions, often endorsing the most popular one. They dedicate minimal efforts towards facilitating the achievements of their staff or the production results in average or below average levels.Employees are not really discontent nor are they happyGood harmony within the groupAverage performanceThe Dictatorial or Produce, Perish or Control (9, 1) Similar to autocratic leaderThese leaders focus all of their attention to production-related matters and very little towards the needs of their employees. These leaders will direct and dominate while holding the belief that efficiency gains can only be achieved through rigid disciplines especially those that don't require human interaction. Employees are considered expendable resources. Productivity is usually short lived as high employee attrition is unavoidable. The dictatorial style is inspired by the McGregor X theory.Employees experience a high level of dissatisfactionHigh level of conflict within the groupHigh employee turnoverPeak performance is short livedThe Sound or Team (9, 9)According to Dr. Robert R. Blake and Dr. Jane Srygley Mouton (and I agree), the sound leader is the most effective leadership style. These leaders will contribute and are committed, can motivate and are motivated while holding the belief that trust, respect, commitment and employee empowerment are essential for fostering a team environment where team members are motivated, thus resulting in maximum employee satisfaction as well as the most efficient productivity. This sound leadership style is also inspired by the McGregor Y theory.Employees are forming a highly cohesive teamEmployees are satisfiedEmployees are motivated and work as a teamLow employee turnoverAttracts highly skills employeesEfficient organizationIdeal was for all mgrs to be 9,9But as your text points out, there are many times that a 9,9 leadership style would be very inappropriate.
15 Situational Approaches Definition“it all depends”Situational approachLeadership perspective proposing that universally important traits and behaviors do not exist, and that effective leadership behavior varies from situation to situation.Situational theories propose that leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational variables.Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for certain types of decision-making.
16 The Vroom Model of Leadership A situational model that focuses on the participative dimension of leadership.THIS IS HOW TEXT SHOWS THE MODELFigure 9.3
17 This is a slightly later and far more common of Vroom’s leadership model [WALK THROUGH ONE EXAMPLE] 1 Quality Requirement (QR): How important is the technical quality of the decision?2 Commitment Requirement (CR): How important is subordinate commitment to the decision?3 Leader's Information (LI): Do you (the leader) have sufficient information to make a high quality decision on your own?4 Problem Structure (ST): Is the problem well structured (e.g., defined, clear, organized, lend itself to solution, time limited, etc.)?5 Commitment Probability (CP): If you were to make the decision by yourself, is it reasonably certain that your subordinates would be committed to the decision?6 Goal Congruence (GC): Do subordinates share the organizational goals to be attained in solving the problem?7 Subordinate conflict (CO): Is conflict among subordinates over preferred solutions likely?8 Subordinate information (SI): Do subordinates have sufficient information to make a high quality decision?Autocratic l (Al) Leader solves the problem along using information that is readily available to him/herAutocratic ll (All)Leader obtains additional information from group members, then makes decision alone.Group members may or may not be informed.Consultative l (Cl)Leader shares problem with group members individually, and asks for information and evaluation.Group members do not meet collectively, and leader makes decision alone.Consultative ll (Cll)Leader shares problem with group members collectively, but makes decision aloneGroup ll (Gll)Leader meets with group to discuss situation. Leader focuses and directs discussion, but does not impose will.Group makes final decision.VERY COMPLICATED, TIME CONSUMING MODEL.PROBABLY BEST WITH NEW/UNFAMILIAR PROBLEMSCLEARLY DEMONSTRATES THAT NO ONE STYLE ALWAYS PREFERRED
18 Fiedler’s Contingency Model Fiedler’s contingency model of leadership effectivenessA situational approach to leadership postulating that effectiveness depends on the personal style of the leader and the degree to which the situation gives the leader power, control, and influence over the situation.What the heck does this definition mean?Let me translate
19 Fiedler’s Contingency Model Unfriendly Friendly Uncooperative Cooperative Hostile Supportive Guarded OpenFiedler would have you complete a scaleFiedler identified the a Least Preferred Co-Worker scoring for leaders by asking them first to think of a person with which they worked that they would like least to work with againthen to score the person on a range of scales between positive factors (friendly, helpful, cheerful, etc.) and negative factors (unfriendly, unhelpful, gloomy, etc.).A high LPC leader generally scores the other person as positive and a low LPC leader scores them as negative.High LPC leaders tend to have close and positive relationships and act in a supportive way, even prioritizing the relationship before the task. Very much relationship orientedLow LPC leaders put the task first and will turn to relationships only when they are satisfied with how the work is going. Very much task orientedThe key to being a successful leader is to match the leader’s personality with the situationDifferent situations require different types of leaders
20 Fiedler’s Analysis of Situations EXAMPLE WALK THROUGHThis is the scale used to assess the situationEach factor is defined in the following:1. Leader-member relations: the degree to which the employees accept the leader.2. Task structure: the degree to which the subordinates jobs are described in detail.3. Position power: the amount of formal authority the leader possesses by virtue of his or her position in the organization (to reward and punish).Figure 9.4
21 Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory A life-cycle theory of leadership postulating that a manager should consider an employee’s psychological and job maturity before deciding whether task performance or maintenance behaviors are more important.The theory states that instead of using just one style, successful leaders should change their leadership styles based on the maturity of the people they're leading and the details of the task.Using this theory, leaders should be able to place more or less emphasis on the task, and more or less emphasis on the relationships with the people they're leading, depending on what's needed to get the job done successfully
22 The theory states that instead of using just one style, successful leaders should change their leadership styles based on the maturity of the people they're leading and the details of the task.Using this theory, leaders should be able to place more or less emphasis on the task, and more or less emphasis on the relationships with the people they're leading, depending on what's needed to get the job done successfullyAccording to Hersey and Blanchard, there are four main leadership styles that should be matched to the maturity levels of the followers:Telling (S1) – Leaders tell their people exactly what to do, and how to do it.Selling (S2) – Leaders still provide information and direction, but there's more communication with followers. Leaders "sell" their message to get the team on board.Participating (S3) – Leaders focus more on the relationship and less on direction. The leader works with the team, and shares decision-making responsibilities.Delegating (S4) – Leaders pass most of the responsibility onto the follower or group. The leaders still monitor progress, but they're less involved in decisions.Ex: You're about to leave for an extended holiday, and your tasks will be handled by an experienced colleague.He's very familiar with your responsibilities, and he's excited to do the job.Instead of trusting his knowledge and skills to do the work, you spend hours creating a detailed list of tasks for which he'll be responsible, and instructions on how to do them.The result?Your work gets done, but you've damaged the relationship with your colleague by your lack of trust.He was an R4 in maturity, and yet you used an S1 leadership style instead of an S4, which would have been more appropriate.
23 Path-Goal Theory Path-goal theory A theory that concerns how leaders influence subordinates’ perceptions of their work goals and the paths they follow toward attainment of those goals.
25 Contemporary Perspectives on Leadership Charismatic leaderTransformational leaderServant leader
26 Servant Leader Servant-leader A leader who serves others’ needs while strengthening the organization. A servant leader is someone who is servant first, who has responsibility to be in the world, and so he contributes to the well-being of people and community.A servant leader looks to the needs of the people and asks himself how he can help them to solve problems and promote personal development.He places his main focus on people, because only content and motivated people are able to reach their targets and to fulfill the set expectations.The highest priority of a servant leader is to encourage, support and enable subordinates to unfold their full potential and abilities.This leads to an obligation to delegate responsibility and engage in participative decision-making.
27 Summary Make relationships a priority Maximize your communication networkShare informationBe the expertTailor your power to reward othersReward with wordsTeach othersMake relationships a priority.Identify the people with whom you need to establish or develop a relationship.Your ability to use the power of relationships will be compromised if you are not connecting with the right people.Invest time and energy into your existing relationships.Seek to understand others better and acknowledge the needs of others in order to build the social capital required to influence others now and in the future.Repair damaged relationships and the image others may have of you.Look for ways to reestablish trust with others through face-to-face interaction and the sharing of honest feedback.Be aware of how others perceive you and look for ways to influence the perception by soliciting feedback from trusted others.Maximize your communication network.Think about the people you communicate with the most.Are they providing you with access to unique information or redundant information?Look to expand your communication network to find people who may be untapped sources of information.Be generous with information.If you are a central node or conduit of information, remember that keeping information to yourself has potential negative consequences.Share information broadly and with integrity.You don’t want to be perceived as hoarding information for your personal gain.Of course, you don’t want to make the opposite mistake and reveal confidential or personal information.Be the expert.Perhaps the most interesting thing about power in general is that it is in the eyes of the beholder.You can’t just have power de facto unless there are people willing to perceive you as having power.The same holds true for expert power – it comes from actual expertise (such as an advanced degree or relevant experience) or the perception of expertise.Don’t be shy about putting your credentials on your business cards or on your signature, or talking about your experience and expertise.Tailor your power to reward others.Many leaders mistakenly assume that leveraging reward power only means giving people more money.While this option sounds attractive, it is not always possible.Instead, consider recognizing and incenting your team members in other ways.Ask your team members what they would find rewarding.Some team members may find a group picnic or outing highly rewarding.Others may find such an event tedious or tiring.Time off or flexibility of hours might work for some employees; others may not even take notice.Whatever their incentive, don’t make the mistake of assuming that one reward fits all.Reward with words.Give positive feedback and give it often. CCL’s experience with leaders across industries tells us that during the course of a typical working relationship, it takes a ratio of 4:1 (4 positives for every negative) for a receiver of feedback to believe that the feedback has been fair.This does not mean that you have to give a team member four positive pieces of feedback every time you have a negative message to deliver.What it does suggest is that many of us have a long way to go in terms of acknowledging what our people are doing right.Teach others.Leveraging your full power does not require that you hoard it.If you want to empower the people you lead, you also need to teach them to use the power they have available to them.Think about the people you lead and rank order them based on their power.What are those at the top of the list doing effectively?What could those at the bottom of the list be doing better?Use seven bases of power as a way to evaluate, communicate, and teach about leadership power in your organization.