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Brief history and Some important concepts

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1 Brief history and Some important concepts
The International monetary system, World Bank, Exchange regime, Eurocurrency, Eurodollar, The birth of Euro. Etc.

2 New institutions in the post-war International monetary system
International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) Christine Lagarde visits Netherlands, May 6-7, 2013

3 International Monetary Fund (IMF)
The International Monetary Fund was created to: Help countries defend their currencies against cyclical, seasonal, or random occurrences Assist countries having structural trade problems if they promise to take adequate steps to correct these problems Special Drawing Right (SDR) is the IMF reserve asset, currently a weighted average of four currencies

4 The role of IMF Managing director of IMF Christine Lagarde interview on StGallen Symposium: 2nd , May 3 points for recovering world economy: Monetary policy combined with fiscal consolidation where it is needed at the right pace Unleash entrepreneurial potential Q: Banking union? What lies ahead? Would EU in its current form survive? Watch the video. One size may not fit all. The International Monetary Fund is a key institution in the new international monetary system and was created to: Help countries defend their currencies against cyclical, seasonal, or random occurrences Assist countries having structural trade problems if they promise to take adequate steps to correct these problems

5 The role of World Bank The World Bank helped fund post-war reconstruction and has since then supported general economic development ” We are not a bank in the ordinary sense but a unique partnership to reduce poverty and support development.” Our work is challenging, but our mission is simple: Help reduce poverty. President of WB: Jim Yong Kim

6 Five Institutions, One Group The World Bank Group organization chart
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) The International Development Association (IDA) The International Finance Corporation (IFC) The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) The International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID)

7 The World Bank mission: reduce poverty worldwide
Among others, combating Financial Crisis. Moving swiftly, the Bank Group expands and speeds up lending, assistance and advice to hard-hit developing countries. In fiscal year 2009, the Bank Group committed nearly $60 billion to support countries affected by the crisis, a 54% increase over the previous year, and a record high for the institution. Watch a video of Jim Yong Kim at Georgetown University:

8 Exhibit 3.1 The Evolution of Capital Mobility

9 Eurocurrency and Libor
Eurocurrencies (p27-p29) domestic currencies of one country deposited in another country. (consists of Eurodollar market. Euroyen, Euroeuro, Eurosterling) Eurodollar: U.S.-dollar denominated deposits at foreign banks or foreign branches of American banks locating outside of the United States Eurodollars escape regulation by the Federal Reserve Board.

10 History of the International Monetary System
Eurocurrency Interest Rates: Libor In the Eurocurrency market, the reference rate of interest is the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) This rate is the most widely accepted rate of interest used in standardized quotations, loan agreements, and financial derivatives transactions There are Pibor, Fibor Mibor (before 1999), Stibor (Stockholm Interbank Offered Rate) and now Euribor Pibor: Paris Interbank Offer Rate. The Madrid Interbank Offered Rate (MIBOR) Frankfurt Inter-Bank Offered Rate (Fibor) Euribor is short for Euro Interbank Offered Rate. The Euribor rates are based on the interest rates at which a a panel of around 40/50 European banks borrow funds from one another. In the calculation, the highest and lowest 15% of all the quotes collected are eliminated. The remaining rates will be averaged and rounded to three decimal places. Euribor is determined and published at about 11:00 am each day, Central European Time. In 2008, Mervyn King, the governor of the Bank of England, said of LIBOR: “It is, in many ways, the rate at which banks do not lend to each other.”

11 History of the International Monetary System
Fixed Exchange Rates ( ) The currency arrangement negotiated at Bretton Woods and monitored by the IMF worked fairly well during the post-WWII era of reconstruction and growth in world trade The US dollar became the main reserve currency held by central banks Eventually, the heavy overhang of dollars held by foreigners resulted in a lack of confidence in the ability of the US to met its commitment to convert dollars to gold

12 History of the International Monetary System
The lack of confidence forced President Richard Nixon to suspend official purchases or sales of gold by the US Treasury on August 15, 1971 This resulted in subsequent devaluations of the dollar Most currencies were allowed to float to levels determined by market forces as of March, 1973

13 History of the International Monetary System
An Eclectic Currency Arrangement (1973 – Present) Since March 1973, exchange rates have become much more volatile and less predictable than they were during the “fixed” period There have been numerous, significant world currency events over the past 30 years

14 Exhibit 3.2 The IMF’s Exchange Rate Index of the Dollar

15 Exhibit 3.3 World Currency Events, 1971-2011

16 Exhibit 3.3 World Currency Events, 1971-2011 (cont.)

17 Exhibit 3.6 The U.S. Dollar/Euro Rate, 1999 - 2011

18 US dollar/Euro ($/€) 04,01,1999-13,05,2013 source: ECB

19 JPY vs. Euro rate (04,01,1999-13,05,2013) source: ECB

20 CNY vs. EUR ( )

21 The IMF’s Exchange Rate Regime Classifications
The International Monetary Fund classifies all exchange rate regimes into eight specific categories Exchange arrangements with no separate legal tender Currency board Other conventional fixed peg Pegged exchange rates within horizontal bands Crawling pegs Exchange rates within crawling pegs Managed floating Independent floating

22 The IMF’s Exchange Rate Regime Classifications
Exhibit 3.4 presents the IMF’s regime classification methodology in effect since January 2009 Category 1: Hard Pegs Countries that have given up their own sovereignty over monetary policy E.g., dollarization or currency boards Category 2: Soft Pegs AKA fixed exchange rates, with five subcategories of classification Category 3: Floating Arrangements Mostly market driven, these may be free floating or floating with occasional government intervention Category 4: Residual The remains of currency arrangements that don’t well fit the previous categorizations AKA: also know as

23 Exhibit 3.4 IMF Exchange Rate Classifications

24 Exhibit 3.4 IMF Exchange Rate Classifications (cont.)

25 Fixed Versus Flexible Exchange Rates
A nation’s choice of currency regime to follow depends on many variables: inflation, unemployment, interest rate levels, trade balances, and economic growth. The choice between fixed and flexible rates may change over time as priorities change.

26 Fixed Versus Flexible Exchange Rates
Fixed rate regime has advantages and disadvantages: stability in international prices inherent anti-inflationary nature of fixed prices but: Need for central banks to maintain large quantities of hard currencies and gold to defend the fixed rate Fixed rates can become incompatible with economic fundamentals as time goes.

27 Emerging Markets and Currency Regime Choices
Currency board regime a country’s central bank commits to back its monetary base (its money supply) entirely with foreign reserves Argentina Peso=1 USD This means that a unit of domestic currency cannot be introduced into the economy without an additional unit of foreign exchange reserves being obtained first. Argentina moved from a managed exchange rate to a currency board in 1991 In 2002, the country ended the currency board as a result of substantial economic and political turmoil

28 Exhibit 3.8 The Currency Regime Choices for Emerging Markets

29 Emerging Markets and Regime Choices
Dollarization is the use of the US dollar as the official currency of the country. Panama has used the dollar as its official currency since 1907 Ecuador replaced its domestic currency with the US dollar in September, 2000 Exhibit 3.7 shows Ecuadorian Sucre movement vs the U.S. Dollar prior to Dollarization

30 Exhibit 3. 7 The Ecuadorian Sucre/U. S
Exhibit 3.7 The Ecuadorian Sucre/U.S. Dollar Exchange Rate, November 1998-March 2000

31 Currency Regime Choices for Emerging Markets
Some experts suggest countries will be forced to extremes when choosing currency regimes - either a hard peg or free-floating (Exhibit 3.8) Three common features that make emerging market choices difficult: weak fiscal, financial and monetary institutions tendencies for commerce to allow currency substitution and the denomination of liabilities in dollars the emerging market’s vulnerability to sudden stoppages of outside capital flows

32 The Euro: Birth of a European Currency
In December 1991, the members of the European Union met at Maastricht, the Netherlands to finalize a treaty that changed Europe’s currency future. This treaty set out a timetable and a plan to replace all individual ECU currencies with a single currency: the euro. View Funding fathers of Euro (

33 The Euro: Birth of a European Currency
To prepare for the EMU, a convergence criteria was laid out whereby each member country was responsible for managing the following to a specific level: Nominal inflation rates Long-term interest rates Fiscal deficits Government debt In addition, European Central Bank (ECB), was established in Frankfurt, Germany.

34 Effects of the Euro The euro affects markets in three ways:
Cheaper transactions costs in the Euro Zone Currency risks and costs related to uncertainty are reduced Price transparency and increased price-based competition

35 Exchange Rate Regimes: the future?
All exchange rate regimes must deal with the tradeoff between rules and freedom (vertical axis), as well as between cooperation and independence (horizontal axis) (see Exhibit 3.9) Rules Freedom Cooperation independence The pre WWI Gold Standard required adherence to rules and allowed independence The Bretton Woods agreement (and to a certain extent the EMS) also required adherence to rules in addition to cooperation The present system is characterized by no rules, with varying degrees of cooperation The pre WWI Gold Standard required adherence to rules. The Bretton Woods agreement also required adherence to rules in addition to cooperation The present system is characterized by no rules, with varying degrees of cooperation Many believe that a new international monetary system could succeed only if it combined cooperation among nations with individual discretion to pursue domestic social, economic, and financial goals

36 3.9 The Trade-Offs Between Exchange Rate Regimes
Fixed exchange rate Currency board Independent Free floating


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