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What appeals to readers as you are writing a persuasive piece?

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Presentation on theme: "What appeals to readers as you are writing a persuasive piece?"— Presentation transcript:

1 What appeals to readers as you are writing a persuasive piece?
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? What appeals to readers as you are writing a persuasive piece?

2 Objective: Take Cornell notes in your composition books and become the masters of all things ethos, pathos, and logos!

3 Basic Information to Locate
The author’s Central Argument What is the main point being argued? The Target Audience What groups will most likely be targeted? The Author’s Purpose in writing this Include the words “persuade” and “target audience” in your answer! Persuasive Techniques used to persuade

4 Strategies to Look for in Persuasion
Ethos (authority) Pathos (emotions or values) Logos (statistics, facts, proof) Cause and Effect (if this occurs…then this will happen) Analogy (a comparison to illustrate your point more clearly)

5 What is Persuasion? Presenting the "Argument"
The goal of argument is to win acceptance of one's ideas. Modern argumentation theory has roots in Greek and Roman thinking (Aristotle). We judge evidence, investigate carefully, state ideas accurately, and listen critically

6 Who is Aristotle? Aristotle ( BCE) is the most notable product of the educational program devised by Plato. Aristotle wrote on an amazing range of subjects, from logic, philosophy, and ethics to physics, biology, psychology, politics, and rhetoric.

7 What is rhetoric? Rhetoric is the art of persuasion.
The goal of persuasion is to change others’ point of view or to move others to take action.

8 What is? ETHOS, PATHOS, and LOGOS
Ethos: the source's credibility, the speaker's/author's authority Logos: the logic used to support a claim (induction and deduction); can also be the facts and statistics used to help support the argument. Pathos: the emotional or motivational appeals; vivid language, emotional language and numerous sensory details.

9 Ethos: ETHICS (Creditability)
Greek for ‘character’ To make the audience decide right or wrong about what is being presented to it Political issues, national beliefs, religious issues, etc… Demonstrates author's reliability, competence, and respect for the audience's ideas and values through reliable and appropriate use of support and general accuracy

10 How to build your creditability?
Does the audience respect you? Does the audience believe you are of good character? Does the audience believe you are generally trustworthy? Does the audience believe you are an authority on this speech topic? Keep in mind that it isn’t enough for you to know that you are a credible source. (This isn’t about your confidence, experience, or expertise.) Your audience must know this. Ethos is your level of credibility as perceived by your audience. What other credibility does the author build into the argument? Does the author supplement his/her authority with someone else’s as well?

11 Pathos: EMOTION Greek for ‘suffering’ or ‘experience’
To make the audience feel something about what is presented to it Children, animals, illness, memories, etc… “Tugs at your heart strings” EFFECT: Evokes an emotional response

12 How to appeal to emotion?
Do your words evoke feelings of … love? … sympathy? … fear? Do your visuals evoke feelings of compassion? … envy? Does your characterization of the competition evoke feelings of hate? contempt? Emotional connection can be created in many ways by a speaker, perhaps most notably by stories, but also anecdotes, analogies, similes, and metaphors is often to link an aspect of our primary message with a triggered emotional response from the audience.

13 Logos: LOGIC Greek for ‘word’
To make the audience think about what is presented to it Statistics, facts, authorities, etc… Very straightforward, and not “fluff”. It has a very scientific, factual approach. EFFECT: Evokes a cognitive, rationale response

14 How can you appeal to Logic?
Does your message make sense? Is your message based on facts, statistics, and evidence? Will your call-to-action lead to the desired outcome that you promise?

15 Should persuasive writing have more than one appeal?
Yes! The more appeals used, the more likely the reader will connect with it.

16 Examples of Ethos, Pathos, and Logos
"I will end this war in Iraq responsibly, and finish the fight against al Qaeda and the Taliban in Afghanistan. I will rebuild our military to meet future conflicts. But I will also renew the tough, direct diplomacy that can prevent Iran from obtaining nuclear weapons and curb Russian aggression. I will build new partnerships to defeat the threats of the 21st century: terrorism and nuclear proliferation; poverty and genocide; climate change and disease. And I will restore our moral standing, so that America is once again that last, best hope for all who are called to the cause of freedom, who long for lives of peace, and who yearn for a better future." Ethos Democratic Presidential Candidate Acceptance Speech by Barack Obama. August 28th, 2008.

17 Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? "However, although private final demand, output, and employment have indeed been growing for more than a year, the pace of that growth recently appears somewhat less vigorous than we expected. Notably, since stabilizing in mid-2009, real household spending in the United States has grown in the range of 1 to 2 percent at annual rates, a relatively modest pace. Households' caution is understandable. Importantly, the painfully slow recovery in the labor market has restrained growth in labor income, raised uncertainty about job security and prospects, and damped confidence. Also, although consumer credit shows some signs of thawing, responses to our Senior Loan Officer Opinion Survey on Bank Lending Practices suggest that lending standards to households generally remain tight." logos The Economic Outlook and Monetary Policy by Ben Bernanke. August 27th, 2010

18 Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? "I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. And some of you have come from areas where your quest -- quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed." Pathos I Have a Dream by Martin Luther King Jr. August 28th, 1963

19 Ethos, Pathos, and Logos Can Also Be Found In Advertising!
Imagine the following advertisements and lets decide as a class whether they would be an example of Ethos, Pathos, or Logos

20 Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? A child is shown covered in bug bites after using an inferior bug spray.

21 Tiger Woods endorses Nike.
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? Tiger Woods endorses Nike.

22 Sprite Zero is 100% sugar-free.
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? Sprite Zero is 100% sugar-free.

23 Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? A 32-oz. bottle of Tide holds enough to wash 32 loads.

24 Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? A commercial shows an image of a happy couple riding in a Corvette.

25 Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? Cardiologists recommend Ecotrin more than any other brand of aspirin.

26 Advil Liqui-Gels provide up to 8 hours of continuous pain relief.
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? Advil Liqui-Gels provide up to 8 hours of continuous pain relief.

27 A magazine ad shows people smiling while smoking cigarettes.
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? A magazine ad shows people smiling while smoking cigarettes.

28 The Rhetorical Triangle
The rhetorical triangle is typically represented by an equilateral triangle, suggesting that logos, ethos, and pathos should be balanced within a text. However, which aspect(s) of the rhetorical triangle you favor in your writing depends on both the audience and the purpose of that writing. Yet, if you are in doubt, seek a balance among all three elements.

29 Questions to Help You Recognize and Utilize Logos, Ethos, and Pathos
 Is the thesis clear and specific? (for help with thesis statements, see the Revising Thesis Statements handout)  Is the thesis supported by strong reasons and credible evidence?  Is the argument logical and arranged in a well-reasoned order?

30 Cont. Ethos: What are the writer’s qualifications? How has the writer connected him/herself to the topic being discussed? Does the writer demonstrate respect for multiple viewpoints by using sources in the text? Are sources credible? Are sources documented appropriately? Does the writer use a tone that is suitable for the audience/purpose? Is the diction (word choice) used appropriate for the audience/purpose? Is the document presented in a polished and professional manner?

31 Cont. Pathos:  Are vivid examples, details and images used to engage the reader’s emotions and imagination?  Does the writer appeal to the values and beliefs of the reader by using examples readers can relate to or care about?

32 Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? Our spokesperson, Mr. Coyote says "I'm not really a coyote, but I play one on tv. I've used Acme products for years. Their slingshots, rocket launchers, crowbars, pogo sticks, and power pills are the best around. And don't forget their high-powered dynamite! I buy everything from Acme. They are the company that I trust the most." ethos

33 Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? ACME is currently working towards a patent on our process. Our scientists are exploring ways to use the process in cars, houses, airplanes, and almost anything else that needs power. ACME batteries will be refitted with small dihydro-cesium reactors. Once the entire world is powered by ACME's generators, we can all relax and enjoy a much easier life. logos typical example of energy released from the dihydro-cesium process.

34 Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? A baby turtle breaks free from the leathery shell of its egg, catching its first glimpse of its first sunrise. It pauses a moment to rest, unaware of the danger that lies so close to it. As the tide comes in, approaching the nest, it also approaches a small pile of metal - cesium. The water draws closer and closer, the turtle unsuspecting of the danger. Finally, the water touches the cesium. The nest is torn to bits in the resulting explosion, destroying even more of an endangered species. Why does this happen? One name: Acme. pathos

35 Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? The report concerned a teenager who had been shot because he had angered a group of his male peers.  This act of violence caused me to recapture a memory from my own adolescence because of an instructive parallel in my own life with this boy who had been shot.  When I was a teenager some thirty-five years ago in the New York metropolitan area, I wrote a regular column for my high school newspaper.  One week, I wrote a column in which I made fun of the fraternities in my high school.  As a result, I elicited the anger of some of the most aggressive teenagers in my high school.  A couple of nights later, a car pulled up in front of my house, and the angry teenagers in the car dumped garbage on the lawn of my house and shot up the place.

36 Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? Let us begin with a simple proposition:  What democracy requires is public debate, not information.  Of course it needs information too, but the kind of information it needs can be generated only by vigorous popular debate.  We do not know what we need to know until we ask the right questions, and we can identify the right questions only by subjecting our ideas about the world to the test of public controversy.  Information, usually seen as the precondition of debate, is better understood as its by product.  When we get into arguments that focus and fully engage our attention, we become avid seekers of relevant information.  Otherwise, we take in information passively--if we take it in at all.

37 ETHOS, PATHOS, LOGOS?? Let us endeavor so to live that when we come to die even the undertaker will be sorry. ~ Mark Twain

38 Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? PRESIDENT BARACK OBAMA: Thank you. Thank you.
My fellow citizens: I stand here today humbled by the task before us, grateful for the trust you have bestowed, mindful of the sacrifices borne by our ancestors. I thank President Bush for his service to our nation...

39 Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? The primary reason given for lack of health insurance coverage in 2005 was cost (more than 50%), lost job or a change in employment (24%), Medicaid benefits stopped (10%), ineligibility for family insurance coverage due to age or leaving school (8%). Source: National Center for Health Statistics

40 ACTIVITY!!!!! Get into your groups, and identify the Ethos, Pathos, and Logos in the passage you have been given. Be ready to give and explain an answer of each to the class!

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