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Agenda  Do Now  “What would a Confucist/Daoist/Legalist Do?”  Finish notes on Early China  Homework:  Read Chapter 11 Section 1 and use compare and.

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Presentation on theme: "Agenda  Do Now  “What would a Confucist/Daoist/Legalist Do?”  Finish notes on Early China  Homework:  Read Chapter 11 Section 1 and use compare and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Agenda  Do Now  “What would a Confucist/Daoist/Legalist Do?”  Finish notes on Early China  Homework:  Read Chapter 11 Section 1 and use compare and contrast sheet to take notes

2 DO NOW Which of the three Chinese philosophies do you think would be most effective today? Why?


4 GEOGRAPHY OF ANCIENT CHINA o China – one of the largest landmasses in the world o Two major rivers flow through China Yellow River & Yangtze River o Only one tenth of its land can be farmed o Overtime become unified Called themselves the “Middle Kingdom” Thought they were the center of the world o First people who settled in China, Xia Dynasty, settled in the Yellow River basin



7 SHANG DYNASTY o Settled around the the banks of the Yellow River o Ruled by a king Later, warlords ruled over the smaller areas around the civilization ­Aristocrats = nobles whose wealth comes from the land they owned Majority of population were farmers o Shang people worshipped their Gods and Ancestors o They would use Oracle bones to tell the future These are the first examples of Chinese writing o Chinese writing … Pictographs = characters that stand for objects Ideographs = are another kind of character used in Chinese writing o The Shang are known for weaving silk and producing bronze



10 ZHOU DYNASTY o Established by Wu Wang o Tried to overthrow Shang Dynasty o The Zhou Dynasty developed a centralized form of government Zhou emperor established a large bureaucracy ­Bureaucracy = made up of appointed officials who are responsible for different areas of the government Aristocrats were in charge of their own independent territories The King was considered to be a link between heaven and earth o Kings were chosen by the Mandate of Heaven Mandate = a formal order Mandate of Heaven had 4 rules to governing the state: 1.Heaven chooses the ruler 2.A person’s virtue determines their right to rule 3.No dynasty is permitted to rule forever 4.Rebellion and disaster is evidence that ruler loses legitimacy to the throne o Farmers developed new technologies to improve crop production o Eventually the separate territories gained too much power and began fighting with one another Known as the “Period of the Warring States”


12 A DAY IN THE LIFE IN ANCIENT CHINA o The Chinese were broken up into many different social classes Social Class = includes people who share a similar position in society The upper class = aristocrats Majority of the population were farmers ­Practiced terrace farming – allowed them to farm in the dry mountain side The lowest class were merchants ­Ranked below farmers because they relied on farmers to do their job o The Chinese family was the building blocks of their society Practiced filial piety = children must respect their parents and older relatives


14 CHINESE THINKERS o During the Period of the Warring States, many Chinese thinkers sought ways to reform the society o Three main philosophies emerged: o Confucianism o Based on the teachings of Confucius o Preached the ideas of virtues, respect, loyalty and devotion o People should put the needs of their family and community first o Daoism o Based on the teachings of Laozi o Preached the ideas of balance, nature, and destiny o People should give up worldly desires in favor of nature and the Dao o Legalism o Based on the teachings of Hanfeizi o Preached that people were innately evil and would do wrong if allowed to o Society needs a system of harsh laws and strict punishment


16 QIN DYNASTY o During the Period of the Warring States, the state of Qin rose to power Through a series of military campaigns 221 BCE the last rival state falls Led by Shi Huangdi = means “the First Emperor” o Developed a strict, rigid government based on Legalism o Creates Great Wall & Grand Canal o His cruel leadership caused people to rebel 4 years after his death, the people overthrew his dynasty ­Civil war ensued to decide who would be leader




20 Han Dynasty  Founded by Liu Bang  Ruled with Mandate of Heaven  Gained people’s loyalty  Softened Qin’s Legalist policies  Lowered taxes  Gained military loyalty by distributing land  Continued with the bureaucracy  Bureaucracy = organized body of appointed officials  Advised by Confucian scholars  After his death one of his wives took control  Leads to disunion in government

21 Han Dynasty Cont’d  Han dynasty reaches height under Emperor Wudi  Promotes economic growth  Set up monopolies on goods  Took land from large landowners and put limits on merchants  Confucianist government  Develops a civil service system  Candidates had to pass exam in Confucian classics  Remains throughout China’s imperial rule  Wudi expands empire through warfare  Faces the Xiongnu  Nomads who lived in the grasslands of China  Extends the empire to Korea, Manchuria, Vietnam, Central Asia  Declines in 184 C.E.  Period of disunion

22 Han Society  Period of great prosperity  Family life  Practiced Confucian values of filial piety  Women had fewer privileges than men  Clearly defined social structures  Not always based on wealth  Trade  Han dynasty manufactured numerous products  Bronze, pottery, jade, wood, and silk  Trade expanded Chinese culture  Buddhism  Spread through trade  Reached Han dynasty as suffering increased

23 THE SILK ROAD o Emperor Han Wudi ordered a general named Zhang Qian to explore areas west of China Does not find allies, but discovers western civilizations ­Described meeting Romans & Muslims o Emperor Wudi began an extensive trade network stretching 4,000 miles from western China to southwest Asia o This was known as the Silk Road o This became the predominant trade route across Europe and Asia and encouraged a blending of cultures and ideas


25 Han Achievements  Arts  Architecture  Ceramic and bronze figurines  Silk cloth  Jade carvings  Wall paintings  Literature  Science & Technology  Paper  Iron plow and wheelbarrow  Seismograph  Acupuncture  Compass/Sun dial  Watermill and ship’s rudder

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