Figure 7.4 Petroleum output (10 15 calories day –1 ) from different regions
How important is transportation to greenhouse gas emissions?
Figure 7.5 Prices of fossil fuels in constant 2006 U.S. dollars per gigacalories (10 9 ) or megawatt- hours (10 6 )
Figure 7.10 Greenhouse gas emissions in carbon equivalents (10 9 metric tons C per year) from different human activities
Figure 7.17 Roads, vehicles, and traffic in the United States
12 Transportation Transportation is large percentage of greenhouse gas emissions. Most transportation uses petroleum. Transportation use has increased globally. Reducing transportation emissions is high priority but challenging. At some point, oil demand will be larger than supply (peak oil)
National policies appear to shape fuel economy more than transportation technology
Figure 7.25 Fuel efficiency in the United States as a function of vehicle weight
Figure 7.27 Current (solid) and pending (dashed) governmental regulations on fuel efficiency standards for passenger vehicles
27 Activity Compare the cost of driving a car in the USA versus Denmark Consider annual costs assuming a new car lasts 10 years.
The annual cost of operating a car in Denmark compared to the US is 1.About the same 2.About double the cost 3.About four times the cost 4.About half the cost 5.About a fourth of the cost
29 Average car costs $20,000 or $2000 per year Insurance costs $500 per year Average # of miles is 10,000 per year –USA: $4.00/gallon: –USA: 25 miles/gallon –USA: 400 gallons = $1600 per year –USA: Fees= (9% tax, $1300 purchase, $100 reg/yr): $400/yr –USA Total (per year): $4500 per year –Denmark: $5.93/gallon –Denmark: 45 miles/gallon –Denmark: 222 gallons=$1300 per year –Denmark: Fees= (25% tax, $21000 purchase, $600 reg/yr): $3200/yr –Denmark Total (per year): $7000 per year
What is the most efficient form of transportation?
Figure 7.28 Greenhouse gas emissions for various modes of transportation
Figure 7.30 Number of people in the United States who travel to work via different modes of transportation
33 Mitigation Reduce transportation –Alternative methods (public transport, bike, walk) Improve efficiency –Lighter cars, less power, electric engines Use alternative energy –Fuel cell –Biofuels