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Presentation on theme: "Philosophers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Philosophers

2 Socrates Lived in Athens 469 BC – 399 BC
Known for his contribution to the field of ethics It should be noted that Socrates did not write anything.....rather his thoughts and philosophies were put to text by his student, Plato He became a social and moral critic of Athenian politics and society Tried and found guilty of corrupting the minds of the youth

3 Socratic Method A problem can be solved if broken down into a series of questions. A series of questions are posed to determine a person or groups underlying beliefs and the extent of their knowledge In the search for truth, you eliminate the answers that cause contradictions The Socratic Method was designed to force individuals to examine their own beliefs and the validity of their beliefs

4 Socratic Beliefs “I only know that I know nothing”
Socrates believed that his wisdom was limited to an awareness of his own ignorance Those who did wrong, did not know any better Socrates believed the best way to live was for people to focus on self-development, not the pursuit of material wealth Socrates thought people should focus on friendships to form communities

5 Plato

6 Plato 427-347 BC Student of Socrates
Wrote many dialogues: discussions that share Socrates’ philosophies Plato explores the meaning of things like justice and love Examines what constitutes a balanced life or a just state

7 The Republic Plato said that the soul consists of three elements:
Appetitive – seeks satisfaction of the basic soul Spirited – represented by qualities such as courage Mind – intellectual side A balanced mind keeps the three elements in their proper domain

8 Mind = Society Plato said that the three parts of the soul correspond to the three classes in society. Rulers Soldiers Common People A just state (like a just mind) will happen if each group stays within their domain.

9 A few other tidbits Plato founded The Academy, a school for philosophers Plato believed in reincarnation, that you came back to a new life after death in order to gain more knowledge You carried your knowledge with you to each life Knowledge is therefore, not learned, rather recollection of knowledge from your previous life

10 Platonic Love Plato coined the term for platonic love, to describe a case where love/friendship is separated from physical fulfillment.

11 Aristotle

12 Aristotle 384-322 BC Aristotle joined Plato’s Academy at 17
Quickly became a teacher, travelled and tutored Alexander the Great Upon return to Athens, he opened a new school, the Lyceum, to rival the academy

13 Mr. Know-it -all Aristotle taught and wrote about many topics including: physics, metaphysics, biology, logic, meteorology, astronomy, psychology, literary analysis, ethics and politics. His writings were mainly in the form of lecture notes that were published

14 The Golden Mean Aristotle believe that the greatest purpose people have is to live life well Involves using the virtues we were intended to use, like reason, courage, honesty and moderation Too little or too much of anything can be bad Every good thing exists between two bad things Moral goodness and enjoyment of life are the same thing

15 The Golden Mean There is no reason for a good person to deny himself anything as long as they do not go overboard What’s bad will affect only you When you do wrong, you are hurting yourself here in the life you are living When you overindulge, you affect your health If you abuse power, you loose people’s respect

16 On Ethics Everyone seeks happiness, but having life’s necessities is insufficient Wise people seek true happiness through moderation WHAT IS THE BEST WAY TO LIVE YOUR LIFE??

17 Incidentally Aristotle believed that the soul died with the body

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