2 Socrates Lived in Athens 469 BC – 399 BC Known for his contribution to the field of ethicsIt should be noted that Socrates did not write anything.....rather his thoughts and philosophies were put to text by his student, PlatoHe became a social and moral critic of Athenian politics and societyTried and found guilty of corrupting the minds of the youth
3 Socratic MethodA problem can be solved if broken down into a series of questions.A series of questions are posed to determine a person or groups underlying beliefs and the extent of their knowledgeIn the search for truth, you eliminate the answers that cause contradictionsThe Socratic Method was designed to force individuals to examine their own beliefs and the validity of their beliefs
4 Socratic Beliefs “I only know that I know nothing” Socrates believed that his wisdom was limited to an awareness of his own ignoranceThose who did wrong, did not know any betterSocrates believed the best way to live was for people to focus on self-development, not the pursuit of material wealthSocrates thought people should focus on friendships to form communities
6 Plato 427-347 BC Student of Socrates Wrote many dialogues: discussions that share Socrates’ philosophiesPlato explores the meaning of things like justice and loveExamines what constitutes a balanced life or a just state
7 The Republic Plato said that the soul consists of three elements: Appetitive – seeks satisfaction of the basic soulSpirited – represented by qualities such as courageMind – intellectual sideA balanced mind keeps the three elements in their proper domain
8 Mind = SocietyPlato said that the three parts of the soul correspond to the three classes in society.RulersSoldiersCommon PeopleA just state (like a just mind) will happen if each group stays within their domain.
9 A few other tidbitsPlato founded The Academy, a school for philosophersPlato believed in reincarnation, that you came back to a new life after death in order to gain more knowledgeYou carried your knowledge with you to each lifeKnowledge is therefore, not learned, rather recollection of knowledge from your previous life
10 Platonic LovePlato coined the term for platonic love, to describe a case where love/friendship is separated from physical fulfillment.
12 Aristotle 384-322 BC Aristotle joined Plato’s Academy at 17 Quickly became a teacher, travelled and tutored Alexander the GreatUpon return to Athens, he opened a new school, the Lyceum, to rival the academy
13 Mr. Know-it -allAristotle taught and wrote about many topics including: physics, metaphysics, biology, logic, meteorology, astronomy, psychology, literary analysis, ethics and politics.His writings were mainly in the form of lecture notes that were published
14 The Golden MeanAristotle believe that the greatest purpose people have is to live life wellInvolves using the virtues we were intended to use, like reason, courage, honesty and moderationToo little or too much of anything can be badEvery good thing exists between two bad thingsMoral goodness and enjoyment of life are the same thing
15 The Golden MeanThere is no reason for a good person to deny himself anything as long as they do not go overboardWhat’s bad will affect only youWhen you do wrong, you are hurting yourself here in the life you are livingWhen you overindulge, you affect your healthIf you abuse power, you loose people’s respect
16 On EthicsEveryone seeks happiness, but having life’s necessities is insufficientWise people seek true happiness through moderationWHAT IS THE BEST WAY TO LIVE YOUR LIFE??
17 IncidentallyAristotle believed that the soul died with the body