Presentation on theme: "Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy"— Presentation transcript:
1 Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy Chapter7: Person-centered Therapy
2 Questions?What key concepts do you know in terms of person-center therapy?Do you believe most clients have the capacity to understand and resolve their own problems without directive intervention by the therapist? Why or why not?
3 Person-Centered Therapy (A reaction against the directive and psychoanalytic approaches) Challenges:The assumption that “the counselor knows best”The validity of advice, suggestion, persuasion, teaching, diagnosis, and interpretationThe belief that clients cannot understand and resolve their own problems without direct helpThe focus on problems over persons
4 Person-Centered Therapy Emphasizes:Therapy as a journey shared by two peopleThe person’s innate striving for self-actualizationThe personal characteristics of the therapist and the quality of the therapeutic relationshipThe counselor’s creation of a permissive, “growth promoting” climatePeople are capable of self-directed growth if involved in a therapeutic relationship
5 Six Conditions (necessary and sufficient for personality changes to occur) 1. Two persons are in psychological contact2. The first, the client, is experiencing incongruency3. The second person, the therapist, is congruent or integrated in the relationship4. The therapist experiences unconditional positive regard or real caring for the client5. The therapist experiences empathy for the client’s internal frame of reference and endeavors to communicate this to the client6. The communication to the client is, to a minimal degree, achieved
6 View of Human NaturePerson as innately striving toward becoming fully functioning.Therapist’s attitudes and belief in the inner resources of the clientsClient self-healing capacitiesClients as primary change agentClients actualize their potential for growth, spontaneity, and inner-directedness
7 Therapeutic Goals helping a person become a fully functioning person Clients have the capacity to define their goalsan openness to experienceA trust in themselvesAn internal source of evaluationA willingness to continue growing
8 Therapist’s function and Role Function: to be present and accessible to clients, to focus on immediate experience, to be real in the relationship with clientsThrough the therapist’s attitude of genuine caring, respect, acceptance, and understanding, clients become less defensive and more open to their experience and facilitate the personal growth
9 Therapist’s Function and Role Role: Therapist’s attitude and belief in the inner resources of the client, not in techniques, facilitate personal change in the clientUse of self as an instrument of changeFocuses on the quality of the therapeutic relationshipServes as a model of a human being struggling toward greater realnessIs genuine, integrated, and authenticCan openly express feelings and attitudes that are present in the relationship with the client
10 Client’s Experience in Therapy Incongruence: discrepancy between self-perception and experience in realityanxietymotivation to helpAs clients feel understood and accepted, their defensiveness is less necessary and they become more open to their experiencesTherapeutic relationship activate clients’ self-healing capacities
11 Relationship Between Therapist and Client Emphasizes the attitudes and personal characteristics of the therapist and the quality of therapeutic relationship.Therapist listening in an accepting way to their clients, they learn how to listen acceptingly to themselves.
12 Relationship Between Therapist and Client Congruence - genuineness or realnessUnconditional positive regard- acceptance and caring, but not approval of all behaviorAccurate empathic understanding – an ability to deeply grasp the client’s subjective worldHelper attitudes are more important than knowledge
13 Therapeutic techniques and procedures It is not technique-orientedA misunderstanding---this approach is simply to restate what the client just said or the technique of reflection of feelings (It is incorrect).The therapeutic relationship is the primary agent of growth in the clientTherapist’s presence: being completely engaged in the relationship with clients.The best source of knowledge about the client is the individual client
14 QuestionsWhat are the basic concepts of this theory that you might consider incorporating into your personal style of counseling?
15 Areas of Applicationindividual counseling, group counseling, education, human relations training…..A variety of problems: anxiety, crisis intervention, interpersonal difficulties, depression, personality disorder…..
16 From a multicultural perspective ContributionsHas reached more than 30 counties and has been translated to 12 languagesReduction of racial and political tensions…LimitationsSome people need more structure, coping skills, directednessSome may focus on family or societal expectations instead of internal evaluationMay be unfamiliar with people in different cultures
17 Summary and Evaluation ContributionsActive role of responsibility of clientInner and subjective experienceRelationship-centeredFocus on therapist’s attitudesFocus on empathy, being present, and respecting the clients’ valuesValue multicultural context
18 Summary and Evaluation LimitationsDiscount the significance of the pastMisunderstanding the basic concept: e.g., reflection feelings.