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Prepared for UHS 2052, UHS 2062 and SHP 1313 students at UTM Malaysia by: Siti Rokiah Siwok

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Presentation on theme: "Prepared for UHS 2052, UHS 2062 and SHP 1313 students at UTM Malaysia by: Siti Rokiah Siwok"— Presentation transcript:

1 Prepared for UHS 2052, UHS 2062 and SHP 1313 students at UTM Malaysia by: Siti Rokiah Siwok

2 Language “Language is a structured system of signs, sounds, gestures, and marks that is used and understood to express ideas and feelings among people within a community, nation, geographic area, or cultural tradition.” ( Sieler and Beall, 2011, page 85)

3 Verbal communication Language is critical to communication. Words can make a difference and it is not enough to know the dictionary meanings. Competent communicators are able to determine which form of language is appropriate for a particular situation.

4 Verbal Communicationa Language is one means by which communicate and speech is one way we use language. The use of language does not guarantee that we communicate effectively. Language is useful if it help us to convey meanings.

5 The importance of Language Language is powerful. Language affects thoughts.

6 The elements of Language Sounds Words Grammar Meanings

7 Sounds Under normal circumstances we are given the capacity to produce sounds. However we do not produce sounds in the same way.

8 Words Words are symbols that represents objects or concepts. People give meanings to words. Some meanings of words are known in everyday usage while some are notwhile some are

9 Grammar Grammar are rules that govern how words are put together to form phrases and sentences. The ability to use sounds and grammar correctly is crucial to competent communication.

10 Meaning Words without meanings would be purposeless. The study of meaning, or the association of words with ideas, feelings and contexts is called semantics.

11 Words and meanings Does using a particular word ensure we convey a particular meaning?

12 Words and meanings Meanings are not in words but in people

13 Words and meanings Words are symbols that represent people, objects, concepts and events. The words are NOT the people, objects, concepts and events Words acquire meaning only through the context in which they are used

14 Words : Denotative and Connotative Meanings

15 Denotative meanings Denotation is the common meaning associated with a word, according to the standard dictionary meaning. Denotative meaning is usually readily understood However, we usually use words connotatively.

16 Connotative meanings Connotation is the subjective meaning of a word, which comes with feelings or associations it evokes.

17 Connotative meanings The connotative meaning is based on the context in which the word is used, how the meaning is expressed nonverbally, and the understanding of the receiver.

18 Connotative meanings The competent communicator can differentiate between denotative and connotative meanings and understand which is being used in a given situation.

19 Words: Concrete or abstract

20 Concrete words Are symbols for specific things, such as car, book or keys. Can be made more specific by such as my 1.5 automatic Kancil, Sieler and Beall 8 th edition Communication book; my room key etc

21 Concrete words Communication based on concrete words are less likely to have misunderstanding as the objects can be referred to.

22 Abstract words Abstract words are symbols to represent abstract things such as ideas, qualities, concepts and relationships. These are things which cannot be experienced using the senses.

23 Abstract Words The meanings of abstract words depend on the experiences and intentions of the person using them Can lead to misunderstanding; ineffective communication.

24 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200824 The Ladder of Abstraction Cynthia Best Friend Friend Roommate Employee Person Concrete Abstract Human Life

25 Meanings depends on commonalities The more communicators have in common in terms of background, experience etc the more likely for them to hold similar meanings

26 But…words can obscure meanings

27 Words ….. Used by specific groups Change according to time Regional Subculture Deliberately used to achieve some specific goals

28 Words that obscure Jargon Slang Euphemism Doublespeak

29 Language –based barriers Bypassing Indiscrimination polarization

30 bypassing A misunderstanding that occurs between a sender and a receiver because of the symbolic nature of language

31 bypassing Bypassing usually results from the false belief that a word has only one meaning and that words have meanings in themselves

32 bypassing The interpretation of words becomes more complex when people from different cultures communicate Native speakers and non-speakers have to be taken into account Some bypassings are deliberate

33 Indiscrimination Indiscrimination is the neglect of individual differences and the overemphasis of similiarities

34 Indiscrimination Nouns that categorize people such as “teenager”, “student” and “politician”, encourage us to focus on similarities. The categorization fails to identify the differences among individuals; often leads to stereotyping

35 Indiscrimination Some stereotyping can be positive, such as “All teachers are dedicated professionals”, or “All students are hardworking”.

36 To reduce indiscrimination:Indexing One way to reduce indiscrimination in our communication is to do “indexing”. Indexing is a technique to reduce indiscrimination by identifying the specific persons, ideas, events or objects to which a statement refers to.

37 To reduce indiscrimination: Dating “Dating” is a form of indexing that sorts people, ideas, events and objects according to time. By telling when something occurred, we acknowledge that things change over time and thus adds specificity.

38 Polarization Polarization is the tendency to view things in terms of extremes such as rich or poor, large or small, high or low etc. This is “either-or” black-or-white” way of thinking. Polarization can be destructive and can escalate conflict.

39 Polarization Speakers can avoid the dangers of polarization by recognizing the potential for misunderstanding and by making statements that do not represent “extremes”. Further information and clarification also useful.

40 Others Use gender-inclusive language, that is language that does not discriminate against males or females Aware that culture affects the way we use language

41 Using language effectively Five variables influence the effectiveness of language use: –Accuracy –Vividness –Immediacy –Appropriateness –The use of metaphor

42 Main reference: Seiler, W. J and Beall, M. L ( 2011). Communication. Making Connections ( 8 th ed). Boston: Pearson

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