Presentation on theme: "Typhoid Fever & Diphtheria What are they? Content source: National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases: Division of Bacterial Diseases."— Presentation transcript:
Typhoid Fever & Diphtheria What are they? Content source: National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases: Division of Bacterial Diseases
What is Typhoid Fever? Typhoid fever is a life-threatening illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. In the United States about 400 cases occur each year, and 75% of these are acquired while traveling internationally. Typhoid fever is still common in the developing world, where it affects about 21.5 million persons each year.
How is it spread? Persons with typhoid fever carry the bacteria in their bloodstream and intestinal tract. A small number of persons, called carriers, recover from typhoid fever but continue to carry the bacteria. Both ill persons and carriers shed S. Typhi in their feces (stool).
How is it spread? You can get typhoid fever if you eat food or drink beverages that have been handled by a person who is shedding S. Typhi or if sewage contaminated with S. Typhi bacteria gets into the water you use for drinking or washing food. Typhoid fever is more common in areas of the world where handwashing is less frequent and water is likely to be contaminated with sewage.
Symptoms Sustained fever as high as 103° to 104° F (39° to 40° C). Feel weak, or have stomach pains, headache, or loss of appetite. May have a rash of flat, rose-colored spots.
Treatment: Antibiotics Persons given antibiotics usually begin to feel better within 2 to 3 days, and deaths rarely occur. However, persons who do not get treatment may continue to have fever for weeks or months, and as many as 20% may die from complications of the infection.
Diphtheria The bacteria most commonly infects the nose and throat. The throat infection causes a gray to black, tough, fiber-like covering, which can block the airways. In some cases, diphtheria may first infect the skin, producing skin lesions. Antitoxin only in U.S. Diphtheria remains in developing countries. The countries of the former Soviet Union have reported >150,000 cases in an epidemic which began in 1990. Source for slides to follow: University of Washington School of Medicine
How does it spread? Direct person-to-person transmission (respiratory and physical contact) and through contaminated food and objects. Because of widespread and routine childhood DPT immunizations, diphtheria is now rare in many parts of the world. There are fewer than five cases of diphtheria a year in the United States. Risk factors for developing nations: crowded environments, poor hygiene, and lack of immunization.
Symptoms Bluish coloration of the skin Bloody, watery drainage from nose Breathing problems Difficulty breathing No breathing Rapid breathing Stridor, high-pitched breathing sound caused by blockage Chills Croup-like (barking) cough Drooling (airway blockage) Fever Hoarseness Painful swallowing Skin lesions (usually seen in tropical areas) Sore throat (may range from mild to severe) TREATMENT: antitoxin and antibiotics Basically, it ends in suffocation …