2 DemographicsDemography is the scientific study of the characteristics and dynamics (change) ofAnother way to define demography is to say that it is the study of statistics about people, how these statistics have changed and are changing, and the effects of these changes on social, economic, and environmental conditions.Some of the statistics that demography covers are:Birth RatesDeath RatesAgeMigration (including immigration and emigration)EducationEthnicityReligionEconomic StatusMarital Status
3 Uses fro Demographics Demography is used most in the following areas: Marketing and consumer trendsSocial PlanningHuman ResourcesHistorians, economists, geographers, and even epidemiologists use demographics to help them to explain changes and trends.Politicians, social planners, and health officials use demographics to help them predict future trends and plan for future needs.Demographics are used in making many major decisions. Lawmakers use demographics to help them decide how many immigrants will be allowed to enter Canada; school boards will use demographics when they are deciding whether to build a new school or hire new staff; car companies use demographics in deciding whether to build more SUVs or more Smart Cars.
4 Demography & Social Sciences Demography is a tool frequently used by social scientists to explain and predict specific changes and challenges in society.For instance,PSYCHOLOGISTS might study demographics in order to understand the people they are treating and to help them focus psychological research, education, and treatment. For example, if Canada’s population is growing older should psychologists be researching the correlation between ageing and depression?ANTHROPOLOGISTS might use demography to help explain and understand why a culture behaves the way it does. For example, can anthropologists make any connections in North American cultures between declining birth rates and education?SOCIOLOGISTS might use demography to help explain certain stresses on a society, to explain why a society has changed or to assist in social planning. For example, should available money to spend in a community go toward a new playground or toward a new senior citizens activity centre?
5 ExampleThe family is the basic unit of social activity. Therefore, the sociologist and the anthropologist are interested in the status, roles, and decision-making of family members. In some societies, having many children gives prestige to the mother and to the family. Why people want children is a question that may concern a psychologist.Social Scientists study demographics with three major questions in mind:What are the agents (causes) of change?What are the impediments to change?What are the effects of change?Social Scientists study demographics using a variety of research methods (which we will explore later in this course). These can include interviews, statistics, surveys, observations, and reviews of existing literature.
6 ExploringHow do we determine the demographic rate of growth for a population?Rates of growth are determined by the following formula: ( Number of births + immigration) – (Mortality Rate + emigration) Total Population
7 Which parts of the world are experiencing the highest growth rates Which parts of the world are experiencing the highest growth rates? Develop hypotheses about WHY? (think about the formula for population growth)
8 Which parts of the world are experiencing negative growth rates Which parts of the world are experiencing negative growth rates? Develop hypotheses about WHY? (think about the formula for population growth)
9 The World is Changing Open this and go through the questions. Login: hwdsbstudentPassword: oerbs
10 ActivityIn groups of 2-3: discuss the following world demographic trends:Group 1: World Population Growth has slowed.Group 2: Infant Mortality Rates have declined.Group 3: Fertility has declined.Group 4: There have large increases in urbanization.Group 5: There have been large decreases in illiteracy.Now, choose one and answer the following questions on chart paper and post when doneList one major question that an anthropologist, psychologist, and sociologist might ask regarding this particular social change.List the agents of change (what caused the change) and the impediments to change.Predict the possible effects of these changes on individuals, society, and Canadian culture.Outline two appropriate social science research methods for examining this social changeExplain the challenges (for example, possible bias, ethical concern) that a social scientist would face in examining this social change with the research methods you recommended.