# 1. What is a census? 2. Why is it difficult to compare census information between countries? 3. Why can census information be unreliable? 4. How can population.

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1. What is a census? 2. Why is it difficult to compare census information between countries? 3. Why can census information be unreliable? 4. How can population presented? Name as many ways as you can. 5. http://www.indexmundi.com/g/g.aspx?v=21&c=sp&l=en http://www.indexmundi.com/g/g.aspx?v=21&c=sp&l=en Population structure and control

Dependency Ratios A country's population can be divided into three groups, old dependents, young dependents and economically active. Old dependents: Anyone over the age of 65. These people are normally retired. Young dependents: Anyone under the age of 16. These people are normally being cared for at home or are at school. Economically active: People between the ages of 16 and 65. These people are normally working and pay taxes.

Dependency Ratios Dependency Ratio: the relation between dependents (old and young) and economically active. The dependency ratio is calculated using the following formula: N.B: The dependent Population is the sum of old and young dependents. Examples: 1.The UK has a dependency ratio of 0.65 (2004) 2.India has a dependency ratio of 0.54 (2012) 3.Greece has a dependency ratio of 0.37 (2004) Examples: 1.The UK has a dependency ratio of 0.65 (2004) 2.India has a dependency ratio of 0.54 (2012) 3.Greece has a dependency ratio of 0.37 (2004)

Factors influencing High Dependency Ratios: Increasing life expectancy- people are living longer, which means that more children are being born and are also living longer. Falling death rates- Less deaths due to advances in medical care mean that less elderly are dying of degenerative diseases and infant mortality rates are decreasing. Rising Birth rates- more children + live to a large age. Immigration of dependents- if young and elderly migrate into a country, the dependency ratio will rise. Emigration of economically active- If economically active leave the country, the dependency ratio will rise as the number of economically active decreases.

Ageing dependency Ratios Ageing ratio: The proportion of people over the age of 65 compared the total population. dependency ratio: population aged 65+ -15 x100 population aged 15-64 dependency ratio: population aged 65+ -15 x100 population aged 15-64

Homework 1.Work out the population dependency rate for Spain? 2.Does Spain have a high or low dependency ratio? Explain your answer using statistics 3.Create a population pyramid for The Gambia – depending on the year you were given 4.Get together in your groups and compare the population pyramids in order to answer the questions at the bottom of the worksheet.

Tackling the problems of a youthful population http://populationpyramid.net/China/1970/

Solutions to an Youthful Populations Solutions to an Youthful Population might include: Anti-natalist policy (e.g. China’s one Child Policy) Increased immigration of economically active Privatised education (remove cost from government) Privatised healthcare (remove cost from government) Removal of child benefits. [Is this realistic?] Reduced birth rates (family planning, contraception, etc.) Reduced infant mortality rates (people then normally have less babies) Greater care of old dependents (less children needed to care for elderly) Immigration restrictions (quotas) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mehDE82DaU g

Anti-natalist policy (e.g. China’s one Child Policy) Anti: Natalist: 1) Read through the information on page 18-19 Create a timeline to show and EXPLAIN how China has tried to reduce it’s youthful population. Why did the CCP encourage people to have children in the 1960s?

Anti-natalist policy (e.g. China’s one Child Policy) 2) Use source A to explain: - the birth rate - Death rate - Natural population change - Explain what the graph shows and how the population has changed

The consequences of Anti Natalist Policies 3) Annotate your own map of China in order to show the un balanced gender ratio in China - which provinces have a higher inbalance and which have a lower? 4) Draw a graph showing the data in source D and complete the task 4 and 5 to explain problems facing China and why it is possible to AGREE AND DISAGREE with this method of controlling the population! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ndWuq6AznmQ

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