Presentation on theme: "My Bone Marrow… My Blood… My Life… By Alpha-Bots December 2010."— Presentation transcript:
My Bone Marrow… My Blood… My Life… By Alpha-Bots December 2010
Leukemia Statistics in USA According to the United States Census Bureau: US 2 nd country in world with Leukemia ¼ million cases in US 45,000 new cases diagnosed each year in US Leading cause of death among children under 15 More common in men than in women Most common in Americans of European descent and least common in Native Americans
Cold Facts about Leukemia Leukemia is the 6 th most common cause of cancer deaths in US About 22,000 will die of Leukemia in 2010 450 children, ages 0 to 14, will die of Leukemia in 2010
Leukemia Hits Home One of the teachers at our school is a Leukemia survivor So what is Leukemia and how can we protect ourselves and find a cure? It all starts in our Skeletal System, in our Bone Marrow to be exact…
Meet your Skeletal System… … and your Bone Marrow 206 bones Large and small All contain bone marrow at their core Bone marrow is a yellow spongy material at the core of our bones Since birth, bone marrow in all bones produces blood cells When all grown up, bone marrow in large bones only produce fresh blood cells
What Kind of Cells are in My Blood? RBC: Carry O 2 throughout the body WBC: Fight off disease i.e. viruses and bacteria Platelets: Clot and mend bruises
Percentage of Blood Cells Blood accounts for 7% of the body weight Light Blue: Red Blood Cells ~ 4-6 million Turquoise: Platelets ~ 150-450 thousand Dark Blue: White Blood cells ~ 4.5-11 thousand
Where does my Blood come from? Before we are born, our blood cells are made in the liver and spleen. Just like other cells in the body that die and get replaced every day, the same happens with blood cells. Blood cells are produced in the bone marrow. The DNA is programmed to cause the cells to divide and multiply producing new cells.
Lineages of a Stem Cell Leukemia happens when immature blood cells pour into the blood stream Bone marrow makes stem cells Stem cells go through several steps to transform into a MATURE blood cell (i.e. RBC, WBC, platelets or lymphocytes) Stem Cell Lymphocytes White Blood cells Red blood cells Platelets
Blood Cell Formation Overview Red Blood Cells 7 days 3-4 mitotic divisions White Blood Cells Platelets
What goes wrong? Something changes in the DNA’s tumor suppressing gene; it does not function properly due to a gene mutation Stem cells produced by the bone marrow start dividing in abnormal ways Immature stem cells reach the blood stream Blood stream contains immature cells and cannot function normally as a result This disease is called Leukemia.
Types of Leukemia Depending on the lineage: If White Lineage: Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) If Lymphocyte Lineage: Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) Acute: Severe, progresses quickly, stem cells produced in bone marrow develop into immature cells in their early stages of development, resulting in immature blast cells pouring into the blood stream Chronic: Long-term, stem cells produced in bone marrow develop into immature cells in their late stages of development, resulting in immature cells (that almost look normal) pouring into the blood stream
Symptoms Anemia (lack of MATURE red blood cells to carry O 2 ) Fatigue (lack of MATURE red blood cells to carry O 2 Bleed easily and extensively (due to poor clotting and lack of MATURE platelets) Get sick easily (due to lack of MATURE white blood cells)
Possible Causes of Leukemia: DNA Mutation as a result of … Exposure to radiation Exposure to chemicals Smoking Viruses-extremely rare. There is a change in the tumor-suppressing gene
How can Leukemia be Cured? Methods of treatment include: Chemotherapy Radiation therapy Bone marrow transplant Tissue Engineering and stem cell research These treatments bring out about remission and doctors monitor patients closely for the possibility of a relapse. If more than 5 years in remission, this indicates a good chance of long-term survival.
According to the Leukemia- Lymphoma Society… Survival rates have doubled or tripled over the last 4 decades Research under way as we speak in OHSU This slide adopted from the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society
Research In Oregon We are curing cancer in Portland! –OHSU researcher Dr. Brian Druker, with a grant funded by LLS, developed a drug whose targeted therapy kills cancer cells while leaving normal cells alone – meaning that some leukemia patients can take a daily pill and have a 95% survival rate with minimal side effects! Research funds continue to support Dr. Druker as well as other OHSU and University of Oregon researchers. This slide adopted from the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society
Our Team Solution Status: Improved and Measures of Prevention
How we are helping find a cure Raise awareness of the disease We developed a Leukemia Diet for people who have a family history of Leukemia We recommend periodic blood screening for to detect immature blood cells as early as possible We recommend periodic DNA analysis to check for mutations To support research work to find a cure, our school raised money for the Leukemia- Lymphoma Society Pennies for Patients Campaign in 2003 through 2008. Our school won 3 rd place in 2006, and 1 st place in 2008 for the highest average donation per student.
How can we protect ourselves? Stop the DNA Mutation Eat healthy Exercise Do not smoke Do not expose self to radiation Do not expose self to chemicals Rest when you get sick, so you can regain your strength faster
A Word of Thanks to … Leukemia-Lymphoma Society Dr. Nazmul Hoque Dr. Ahmed OHSU Biomedical Engineering Labs NPR interview with Dr. Siddhartha Mukherjee about the History of Cancer Various internet sources http://greenfield.fortunecity.com/rattler/46/haemopoiesis.htm http://www.leukemia-lymphoma.org/attachments/National/br_1098115974.pdf
The End Thank you for your attention! Any questions?