Presentation on theme: "UN Disaster Response Multinational Planning Augmentation Tempest Express 5 UlaanBaatar, Mongolia - 04 August 2003."— Presentation transcript:
UN Disaster Response Multinational Planning Augmentation Tempest Express 5 UlaanBaatar, Mongolia - 04 August 2003
Emergency Characteristics A sudden and rapid population movement: across international borders (or within national borders), of large number of persons, with high percentage of women and children, caused by acute danger or other threats to their lives and liberty, and into areas with scarce resources and limited infrastructure.
Response Topic-specific Conventions - (e.g., CRC on Children; 1951 Refugee Convention on refugees) Context specific resolution – (e.g., sanctions on regime; establishing peace operation) Integrated Operations – (with political, military/police, humanitarian/development components)
The Main Emergency Response Agencies UN Agencies UNHCR World Food Programme (WFP) UNICEF OCHA Non- UN Agencies Red Cross/Red Crescent movement IOM NGOs National agencies
1921: League of Nations elects Fridtjof Nansen as High Commissioner 1931-1938: International Nansen Office for Refugees 1938-1947: Intergovernmental Committee for Refugees 1943: United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) 1946: UN General Assembly includes refugee problem as priority item –Refugee problem is international in scope and character –No involuntary returns of refugees and displaced persons –Establishment of international body for refugees –Assistance for early return to country of origin 1947-1952: International Refugee Organisation –repatriation, identification, registration, care, legal and political protection, transport, resettlement, etc. 1950: Establishment of UNHCR starting 1.1.1951 Brief History
UNHCR As of 1 July 2002 No. UNHCR offices world-wide (incl. HQs)- 268 in 120 countries. UNHCR staff members, incl. short-term: 5,523. Staff members in the field: 4,353 (84% of total). Ratio of staff members to people of concern to UNHCR: 1 per 3,582. Total UNHCR budget for 2002: US$ 1billion. Total number of NGOs as implementing partners in 2001 - 573 144States party to the 1951 Convention and/or the 1967 Protocol-144
Statute of UNHCR (High Commissioner’s Mandate) Defines refugees as persons of concern to UNHCR. Provides international protection to refugees under auspices of UN. Seeks durable solutions for problems of refugees by assisting governments. Durable solutions - voluntary repatriation, local integration, or resettlement. Work of High Commissioner: “entirely non-political, humanitarian and social.” UNHCR is a temporary institution, originally 3 years, then extended every 5 years. To promote international (refugee) conventions and supervise their applications, To administer public or private funds which are received to assist refugees and distribute these funds to private and public agencies that are best qualified to administer assistance to refugees. High Commissioner follows policy directives given by UN General Assembly or the Economic and Social Council.
Refugee Definition A refugee is a person who, owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, (membership of a particular social group) or political opinion, is outside the country or his/her nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country”
Displaced Persons Persons or group of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or leave their homes or habitual residence as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalised violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognised state border.
Parameters for IDP Operation Specific request or authorisation from UN Secretary general or other competent organ of the UN. Consent of the state concerned or other relevant entities to the conflict. Access to the affected and adequate security for UNHCR and implementing partners to operate. Clear lines of responsibility and accountability with the ability to intervene directly with parties concerned, particularly with protection matters. Adequate resources and capacity to carry out activities.
Number of Refugees and Others of Concern to UNHCR - as of July 2002 Refugees - 12 million Returnees - 462,700 Asylum Seekers - 940,800 IDPs and others of Concern - 6.3 million
UNHCR Activities That May Be Linked With Military Security of humanitarian operations ( e.g.security/evacuation of staff, convoy escorts ) Augmenting UNHCR’s capacity to implement its mandate - (international protection and assistance)
Examples Where the Military Augments International Protection Activities Presence Support to Civil Administration Liaison with Local/Military Authorities Military Information Creation of Environment Suitable for Return/Normalcy Role of UNMOs/UNCIVPOL
Examples of Humanitarian Assistance Activities Transporting Humanitarian Aid Health and Medical Support Repair and Maintenance of Infrastructure
Co-ordination Recommended Steps: –Common geographic areas of responsibility –Compatible communications equipment –Collocation –Exchange of Liaison Officers –Regular Inter-Agency meetings –Routine Contact between Desk Officers –Civil-Military Operations Centers (CMOCs) –Assessment or Reconnaissance Missions