Baroque Times Jamestown, Virginia founded as first English colony in North America (1607) Math/Science- Newton, Galileo, Copernicus English Civil War (1642-1651) Old empires dissolving, new ones forming; rise of Nationalism Music is more ornate than previous times; instrumental music written more than vocal music. Composers: Bach, Händel, Vivaldi.
St. Paul’s Cathedral, London, England (1710) Architect- Sir Christopher Wren.
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) German Worked as court composer and/or music director in three cities 1126 known published works, all recorded by Bach Works Catalogue (BWV) Survived by many sons who also became composers
Georg Friderich Händel (1685-1759) German-born Known especially for oratorio Messiah (1741) and Water Music (1717) 1723- moved to London, commissioned to write works for Royal Academy of Music, Covent Garden Opera, and King George I. One of few foreign-born personalities to be buried in Westminster Abbey
The Classical Era New addition to music: dynamics and phrasing Less complex/ornate than baroque music 4 July 1776- Declaration of Independence 14 July 1789- Bastille Day- beginning of French Revolution 1806- Napoleon storms in, Holy Roman Empire dissolves Musical life is centered around Vienna
Franz Josef Haydn (1732-1809) Austrian “Father of the Symphony”, wrote over 100 symphonies Taught Beethoven
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756- 1791) Austrian Child prodigy- toured around Europe with his father First opera- age 14 Operas- Don Giovanni, Le Nozze di Figaro, Die Zauberflöte Last piece composed was ironically the Requiem Mass
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) German-born Student of Haydn Began to lose hearing around 1796 One opera, 32 piano sonatas, nine ground- breaking symphonies.
Romanticist Music Music tells a story, mostly of the human experience. Composers begin to write based on their country’s folk music traditions Russia- Mussorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov, Tchaikovsky Germany/Austria- Brahms, Strauss I, Strauss II, Schumann, Wagner France- Faure, Berlioz, Saint-Säens, Bizet Eastern Europe- Dvořák (Czech), Liszt (Hungarian), Chopin (Polish), Sibelius (Finnish), Grieg (Norwegian) Italy- Puccini, Verdi, Rossini, Paganini
All about breaking the traditional rules of music and being creative Had more competition with the rise of folk music forms (jazz, pop, rock, etc.) “BIG invention in music- phonograph (1877) “CLASSICAL” MUSIC IN THE 20 TH CENTURY
“Focuses on a suggestion or an atmosphere rather than an emotion or telling a story” Use of less common scales and intervals Composers: Claude Debussy, Maurice Ravel, Erik Satie (all French) Impressionism Monet: “Impression, Sunrise” (1872)
Chance music- Music based on everything that happens around it. Serialism- music based on short patterns. Sound, more than music- using instruments in different ways to make different sounds (George Crumb, Henry Cowell, Krzysztof Penderecki) Minimalism- Phillip Glass, Steve Reich, John Adams Postmodern music
Postmodern art Dadaism- “The Treachery of Images”, Rene Magritte, 1929