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Grammar Notes Avoiding Common Mistakes. SPELLING MATTERS The number one reason to proofread your work before you turn it in is because there are a number.

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Presentation on theme: "Grammar Notes Avoiding Common Mistakes. SPELLING MATTERS The number one reason to proofread your work before you turn it in is because there are a number."— Presentation transcript:

1 Grammar Notes Avoiding Common Mistakes

2 SPELLING MATTERS The number one reason to proofread your work before you turn it in is because there are a number of simple spelling mistakes. Did you spell correctly? Did you misspell words that are in your book, in which they clearly show you how to spell it right? We all make mistakes without realizing them; double check your work.

3 ThereThey’reTheir A location. My reminder: T HERE They are. Apostrophes show that a letter is missing. People. My Reminder: There is an “I” In the word and “I” am a person

4 Sources = Evidence Providing author and page number gives credibility to your claims. It shows that experts agree with your opinion. Use MLA formatting of sources (Author Page number) when prompted to cite. Further explanation is found at

5 Accept vs Except Accept: To receive; to allow Except: To leave out

6 Apostrophes Apostrophes are used to show possession, or that letter(s) have been removed for contractions. For Example: “They’re” is a contraction of “they are” Or Eduardo’s grades need improving. If a possessive ends in “s,” the apostrophe comes after the “s.” For Example: Mr. Woods’ desk is messy. Apostrophes are NEVER EVER EVER EVER EVER EVER EVER used to show plurals.

7 “a lot” is two words, not one

8 “I didn’t know what that word meant” This is never a valid excuse. We have dictionaries in the room. When you are allowed to use your phone, (also has an app) is even faster. You must look up words if you don’t know what they mean or have forgotten. Otherwise, you will not be able to answer your questions correctly or use words properly when communicating.

9 It and They are vague Be specific. “It” and “they” refer to people and things you have already mentioned previously. If you have not previously mentioned who or what these people/things are, you haven’t explained anything.

10 Double Negatives do not make a positive in communication “They don’t have none” is not the same as “They don’t have any.” To say, “They don’t have none” means anything from “They have one” to “They have any number of things.” Don’t be vague; be specific.

11 Plural and Singular Agreement When using pronouns such as “it” and “they,” you need to make sure that your plurals and singles agree. “Robert had a dog. I petted them.” DOES NOT AGREE. You said one, then you said many. Don’t be confusing. “They was” is plural singular. “They were” stays plural. Be consistent.

12 Use the correct word; failure to do so changes meaning.

13 It’s vs its: Contraction vs possession “It’s” with an apostrophe is used as a contraction. This means it shows that a letter has been removed from “it is.” Because “it’s” is already used for contraction, in order to show that a thing owns something, “its” without an apostrophe is for possession.

14 Parts of speech Noun – a person, place, or thing Verb – an action done by a noun Pronoun- a general reference to a noun, i.e. “it” Adjective – describes a noun, i.e. “white” Adverb – Describes a verb, i.e. “quietly” Proper noun – A formal title for a noun, i.e. “Robert” or “Declaration of Independence” or “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” These are the basics of part of speech. If you don’t know these which you learn in the beginning of elementary school, review them.


16 Should of If you mean to say “should have,” do not say “should of.” You are mistaking the sound of the contraction “should’ve” and is best expressed, instead, as “should have” to be clear.

17 Slang is not appropriate for formal writing Slurs, nicknames, short hand (e.g., &, w/o), slang (i.e., ratchet), and ending words in “a” when it doesn’t belong (i.e., shoulda, woulda, coulda) is not appropriate for formal writing because they lack clarity of standardized English, the language of business and internationally recognized BECAUSE it removes vagueness and confusion.

18 Capitalization When to use it: proper nouns are capitalized, such as titles and names. When to use it: At the beginning of a sentence. When not to use it: ANY OTHER TIME.

19 Rules for numbers Numbers one through twenty should always be written out because the word is short enough to do so. Numbers twenty-one and higher can be written out, but generally are accepted if written as numbers (21 and up). Using commas is standard to avoid confusion in large numbers (1,234 is easier to tell than 1234). When else to spell it: decades or centuries, i.e., nineteenth century Estimations: “Roughly nineteen million….” Two numbers next to each other: seven 13-year-olds Ordinal numbers: He came in first place. There are many rules in disagreement when it comes to numbers, but these are generally accepted as the standard by nearly all.

20 “You” Do not order your audience to do anything. “You know what I mean?” and any other usage of “you” in your essay is inappropriate. Do not make assumptions of your audience.

21 “Can not” does not exist Cannot is spelled as a single word. I know, it feels weird because “do not” is two words. Just remember that for some weird English language rule, that cannot is a single word.

22 Hanging words are really annoying Stop using hyphens at the end of a line to show that you are tr- ying to continue what you are saying. Editors do it save sp- ace, writers never do it. It’s poor writing and destroys me- aning.

23 Then, than Are, our Then: Refers to time “I went to the store, then, I went to bed.” Than: Comparison “I’m a better gamer than you.” Are: Plural usage of “to be” “My students are going to copy these notes.” Our: Plural possessive “Our time is now.”

24 And, But, Because Words like this are joining words, combining sentences that show relation to each other. These words should never start a sentence. I do not want to see any big Buts in your writing.

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