Presentation on theme: "Congress The US Constitution describes the powers and limitations of Congress, but says surprisingly little about how Congress should be organized, how."— Presentation transcript:
1 CongressThe US Constitution describes the powers and limitations of Congress, but says surprisingly little about how Congress should be organized, how bills should become laws, or what roles political parties should play. All of these questions have been answered over time as new legislative problems have emerged.
2 In this activityEach group will be presented with problems that Congress has faced and will come up with a reasonable solution. The class will then discuss how closely that relates to how Congress now operates.
3 Problem: Who’s in charge? The House consists of 435 people smart and ambitious enough to get into Congress, the Senate 100 people who are smart, ambitious, and even more politically experiencedWith so many ambitious leaders in one place – who leads these hundreds of leaders?
4 Solution: party leaders Speaker (only in the House) – elected by the members (always a member of the majority party) Nancy PelosiMajority leader (in House and Senate) -- elected by the members (always a member of the majority party) Steny Hoyer/Harry ReidMinority leader (in House and Senate) -- elected by members of the minority party – John Boehner/Mitch McConnell
5 Problem: Things get complicated As society becomes increasingly complicated and technical, members of Congress often find that they do not have the expertise to consider some legislation.
6 Solution: Standing committees Specialized committees in both the House and Senate are established to handle bills in specific subject areas.(egs bills of farming go to the Agriculture Committee, bills on taxation go to Way and Means, spending bills go to the Appropriations Committee)Members often stay in the same committees for years
7 Problem: Committee envy Members all want to be on the most-powerful committees. The most sought-after committees have to do with spending (appropriations) and taxing (ways and means).
8 Solution: Party leaders The majority party allocates committee seats according to party (with the majority party giving itself more than 50 percent of the seats in every committee – example the House Ways and Means committee has 24 Republicans and 17 Democrats)Members then request what committees they would like to be onThe House Speaker and Senate Majority Leader allocate seats to majority party membersThe Minority Leaders (in the House and Senate) allocate seats to minority party members
9 Problem: So many bills, so little time Members of Congress submit far more bills than can be voted on by the entire House or Senate.
10 Solution: CommitteesBills are first assigned to a committee where they are first debated and voted on -- most of them die in committeeIf the bills get out of committee, they are then scheduled by:House – Order of bills appearing on the floor set by SpeakerSenate – informal negotiations with party leaders, committee chairs and bill sponsorsIf a bill is scheduled too late in a session it may never be voted on by the whole Congress and will die
11 Problem: Talk, TalkSo many members want to speak on important legislation for prolonged periods that fewer bills are being considered.
12 Solution: SchedulingIn the House (with 435 members) debates before the whole House could last weeks so the Speaker (through the Rules Committee) schedules how long bill be debated. Main advocates/opponents for bill specify specificsIn the Senate (with 100 members) the tradition is that Senators may speak as long as they would like (so long as recognized) -- creates the filibuster where a Senator stalls a vote on a bill by refusing to give up the floor for a vote
13 Problem: The House is getting too big In 1790 there was one member of the house for every 33,000 citizens, but as the US grew that became unworkable (The US House would have about 9,000 members if something hadn’t been changed)
14 Solution: Limit the House The number of house seats was fixed at 435 in 1911But to make sure the number of house seats allocated to each state reflects their population we have a three-step processCensus – How big is each state?Reapportionment – How many states should each state get (about 1 per 700,000 people)?Redistricting – How can the boundary lines be drawn so each district contains roughly the same number of people
15 Impact of this system House, continued Representation approx. proportionate to population; about 700,000 constituents eachMost populous district is Nevada’s 3rd District; 960,000 people represented by one member.All of Montana’s 958,000 people likewise have just one vote in the House.523,000 in Wyoming get one vote527,000 in one of Rhode Island’s two districts and the 531,000 in the otherImpossible to divide equally.Some discussion lately as to whether or not to add more Representatives
16 Senate California: 18.5 million people represented per Senator Wyoming: about 266,000 people represented per SenatorOregon: 1.9 million people represented per Senator