Austin leads groups of Americans into Texas Issues with the Mexican govt. spring up and lead to problems. Slavery is the issue After slaughter at the Alamo and Goliad, Houston holds off Santa Anna at Battle of San Jacinto
Characteristics of the Antebellum South 1.Primarily agrarian. 2.Economic power shifted from the “upper South” to the “lower South.” 3.“Cotton Is King!” * 1860 5 mil. bales a yr. (57% of total US exports). 4.Very slow development of industrialization. 5.Rudimentary financial system. 6.Inadequate transportation system.
Southern Society (1850) “Slavocracy” [plantation owners] The “Plain Folk” [white yeoman farmers] 6,000,000 Black Freemen Black Slaves 3,200,000 250,000 Total US Population 23,000,000 [9,450,000 in the South = 40%]
Slavery Was Less Efficient in the U. S. than Elsewhere J High cost of keeping slaves from escaping. J GOAL raise the “exit cost.” u Slave patrols. u Southern Black Codes. u Cut off a toe or a foot.
Slave Resistance Refusal to work hard. Isolated acts of sabotage. Escape via the Underground Railroad.
Quilt Patterns as Secret Messages The Monkey Wrench pattern, on the left, alerted escapees to gather up tools and prepare to flee; the Drunkard Path design, on the right, warned escapees not to follow a straight route.
Slave Rebellions in the Antebellum South 1822 Gabriel Prosser 1800
Slave Rebellions in the Antebellum South: Nat Turner, 1831
The Culture of Slavery 1.Black Christianity [Baptists or Methodists]: * more emotional worship services. * negro spirituals. 2.“Pidgin” or Gullah languages. 3.Nuclear family with extended kin links, where possible. 4.Importance of music in their lives. [esp. spirituals].
Abolitionist Movement 1816 American Colonization Society created (gradual, voluntary emancipation. British Colonization Society symbol
Abolitionist Movement eCreate a free slave state in Liberia, West Africa. eNo real anti-slavery sentiment in the North in the 1820s & 1830s. GradualistsImmediatists
William Lloyd Garrison (1801-1879) eSlavery & Masonry undermined republican values. eImmediate emancipation with NO compensation. eSlavery was a moral, not an economic issue. R2-4
The Liberator Premiere issue January 1, 1831 R2-5
Other White Abolitionists Lewis Tappan Arthur Tappan James Birney eLiberty Party. eRan for President in 1840 & 1844.
Black Abolitionists David Walker (1785-1830) 1829 Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World Fight for freedom rather than wait to be set free by whites.
Frederick Douglass (1817-1895) 1845 The Narrative of the Life Of Frederick Douglass 1847 “The North Star” R2-12
Sojourner Truth (1787-1883) or Isabella Baumfree 1850 The Narrative of Sojourner Truth R2-10
Harriet Tubman (1820-1913) eHelped over 300 slaves to freedom. e$40,000 bounty on her head. eServed as a Union spy during the Civil War. “Moses”
Leading Escaping Slaves Along the Underground Railroad