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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers 1.List the characteristics of ideal op amps. 2. Identify negative feedback in op-amp circuits. 3. Analyze ideal op-amp circuits that have negative feedback using the summing-point constraint.

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers 4. Select op-amp circuit configurations suitable for various applications. 5. Design useful circuits using op amps. 6. Identify practical op-amp limitations and recognize potential inaccuracies in instrumentation applications. 7. Work with instrumentation amplifiers. 8. Apply active filters.

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers IDEAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers The input signal of a differential amplifier consists of a differential component and a common-mode component.

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers Characteristics of Ideal Op Amps Infinite gain for the differential input signal Zero gain for the common-mode input signal Infinite input impedance Zero output impedance Infinite bandwidth

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers SUMMING-POINT CONSTRAINT Operational amplifiers are almost always used with negative feedback, in which part of the output signal is returned to the input in opposition to the source signal.

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers In a negative feedback system, the ideal op- amp output voltage attains the value needed to force the differential input voltage and input current to zero. We call this fact the summing-point constraint.

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers Ideal op-amp circuits are analyzed by the following steps: 1.Verify that negative feedback is present. 2. Assume that the differential input voltage and the input current of the op amp are forced to zero. (This is the summing-point constraint.)

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers 3. Apply standard circuit-analysis principles, such as Kirchhoff’s laws and Ohm’s law, to solve for the quantities of interest.

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers INVERTING AMPLIFIERS

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers Positive Feedback With positive feedback, the op amp’s input and output voltages increase in magnitude until the output voltage reaches one of its extremes.

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers NONINVERTING AMPLIFIERS Under the ideal-op- amp assumption, the non- inverting amplifier is an ideal voltage amplifier having infinite input resistance and zero output resistance.

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers Voltage Follower

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers DESIGN OF SIMPLE AMPLIFIERS Amplifier design using op amps mainly consists of selecting a suitable circuit configuration and values for the feedback resistors.

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers If the resistances are too small, an impractical amount of current and power will be needed to operate the amplifier.

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers Very large resistance may be unstable in value and lead to stray coupling of undesired signals.

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers OP-AMP IMPERFECTIONS IN THE LINEAR RANGE OF OPERATION Real op amps have several categories of imperfections compared to ideal op amps.

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers Real op amps have finite input impedance! 10 6 to 10 12 Ohms Real op Amps have nonzero output impedance! 1 – 100 Ohms

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers Gain and Bandwidth Limitations

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers Closed-Loop Bandwidth

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers Gain–Bandwidth Product

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers NONLINEAR LIMITATIONS The output voltage of a real op amp is limited to the range between certain limits that depend on the internal design of the op amp. When the output voltage tries to exceed these limits, clipping occurs.

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers The output current range of a real op amp is limited. If an input signal is sufficiently large that the output current would be driven beyond these limits, clipping occurs.

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers Slew-Rate Limitation Another nonlinear limitation of actual op amps is that the magnitude of the rate of change of the output voltage is limited.

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers Full-Power Bandwidth The full-power bandwidth of an op amp is the range of frequencies for which the op amp can produce an undistorted sinusoidal output with peak amplitude equal to the guaranteed maximum output voltage.

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers DC IMPERFECTIONS

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers The three dc imperfections (bias current, offset current, and offset voltage) can be modeled by placing dc sources at the input of the op amp as shown in Figure 14.29. The effect of bias current, offset current, and offset voltage on inverting or noninverting amplifiers is to add a (usually undesirable) dc voltage to the intended output signal.

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers DIFFERENTIAL AND INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS Differential amplifiers are widely used in engineering instrumentatio n.

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers Instrumentation-Quality Differential Amplifier

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers INTEGRATORS AND DIFFERENTIATORS Integrators produce output voltages that are proportional to the running time integral of the input voltages. In a running time integral, the upper limit of integration is t.

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers Differentiator Circuit

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers ACTIVE FILTERS Filters can be very useful in separating desired signals from noise.

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers Ideally, an active filter circuit should: 1.Contain few components 2. Have a transfer function that is insensitive to component tolerances

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers 3. Place modest demands on the op amp’s gain–bandwidth product, output impedance, slew rate, and other specifications 4. Be easily adjusted 5. Require a small spread of component values 6. Allow a wide range of useful transfer functions to be realized

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers Butterworth Transfer Function

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers Sallen–Key Circuits

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers Active lowpass filters such as this are useful as antialias filters in computer-based instrumentation systems as discussed in Section 9.3.

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ELECTRICA L ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SECOND EDITION ALLAN R. HAMBLEY ©2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers

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