Presentation on theme: "URBAN MORPHOLOGY some (very general) geometrical regularities"— Presentation transcript:
1 URBAN MORPHOLOGY some (very general) geometrical regularities [graphics from The Human Mosaic by Terry Jordan-Bychkov and Mona Domosh]
2 Why model urban morphology? To explain urban processesTo permit comparison between citiesTo help predict urban changesNot a good strategy for predicting small-scale variations and peculiarities in the urban fabric
4 Zone Model Ernest Burgess 1920s Sociologist at the University of ChicagoInvasion and succession drove formation of concentric ringsAn ecological model, with ethnic groups as the speciesHis model included “Little Sicily,” Chinatown, Deutschland, “underworld roomers,” “single-family dwellings,” and “bungalow section”Pertained to early 20th c. Chicago in time of European immigration
5 Zone Model (additional factors) Burgess’ model is obsolete now, partly because of changes in theoretical approach and partly because of changes in the cityStill, zones appear because accessibility drives land rent and land in the CBD remains more valuable than in the peripheryAs we will see there are now multiple nucleidifferent land uses benefit different amounts from accessibilityDifferent distance-decay slopesretail (steepest slope)factorieswarehouseshousing (most shallow slope)
14 Old industrial development axis Canal de Lachine, MontrealOld linear feature dating from 19th c.Enduring area of working-class housing
15 Sector Model Homer Hoyt 1930s wedges form along transportation corridorsrailroads & canals lined by industrial districtsmain roads & some waterfronts lined by houses of the wealthyHouseholds of different income and ethnic groups filter towards outer edge in the pre-established directionVacancy chainFreeways do not follow this patternwhy not?
16 Sectors and zones in a real city (Chicago) What accounts for the high-income sector north of the CBD?
17 Multi-nucleated metropolis (Harris & Ullman) Why are some industrial regions located in the transition zone and others are at the outskirts of the city? (hint: think of economic utility in conjunction with urban growth)
25 Gated CommunityWhat are 3 factors that determine where the richest families will live?
26 Factors affecting where the richest families will live lower cost of landnewer infrastructureaccess to desired facilities and geographical locations (what are these?)negative perception of certain social groups (racism and classism)status-seeking behaviorwillingness and ability to commute
27 Factors affecting where the poorest families will live scarcity of affordable housinginability to avoid inadequate or decaying infrastructureinability to maximize access to desired facilitiesspatial avoidance by those in more favored groupsability/inability to commute (creates two zones of low-income housing)