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Presentation on theme: "BIOTECHNOLOGY AND GENETIC ENGINEERING CRISTINA SALVADOR."— Presentation transcript:


2 BIOTECHNOLOGY A modern form of industrial production Uses living organisms, specially microorganisms to make products such as pharmaceuticals, foods and beverages. The use of organisms such as bacteria to protect the environment The use of DNA science for the production of products, diagnostics, and research

3 GENETIC ENGINEERING Group of techniques which allow genes to be transferred between species. The transfer of genes from one species to another is known as genetic modification. It is possible because of the universality of the genetic code. Genetic modification has been used to produce many new varieties of crop plant and animals (GMO)

4 MAJOR TECHNIQUES PCR –Polymerase Chain Reaction Gel Electrophoresis DNA Profiling/DNA Fingerprinting Gene Transfer: Transformation Cloning

5 POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION P CR is a technique that can be used to “amplify” small quantities of DNA Makes it posible to study small samples of DNA extracted from fossils, blood, semen, hair, etc. Involves repeated cycles of: Denaturing (separating the DNA into two strands) Annealing with the selected primer to match a particular target within the DNA Extension of the primer using DNA polymerase from a bacterium adapted to high temperaturas (Thermophylus aquaticus)

6 GEL ELECTROPHORESIS Involves separating charged molecules in an electric field. Samples are placed in Wells cast in a gel. The gel is immersed in a conducting fluid and an electric field is applied. Smaller molecules will move further tan molecules that are large DNA molecules carry negative charges and so they move to the positive pole.

7 Standard

8 ELECTROPHORESIS IS USED TO ANALYZE DNA PROFILES Uses: Forensic investigation Paternity issues Epidemiology: disease transmission Genealogy



11 t/blog/bodhblog/29669363

12 GENE TRANSFER: GMO Genes can be transferred from one species to another by a variety of techniques. Using bacteria Using viruses Using exogenous DNA A method often used for gene transfer to bacteria involves plasmids, restriction enzymes and DNA ligase.

13 GENE TRANSFER: INSULIN PRODUCTION 1.extract plasmid 2.Cut with endonuclease 3.Extract DNA gene for insuline 4.Fuse plasmid and cDNA with DNA ligase 5.Introduce recombinant plasmid into bacterial cell. 6.Multiply bacetria in a fermenter 7.Separate and purify human insulin.

14 EXAMPLES OF GENETIC MODIFICATION Goats genetically modified to secrete anti-clotting agent called anti-thrombin in their milk Sheep have been genetically modified to produce alpha-1-antitrypsin, a protein used in the treatment of emphysema. Crop plants have been engineered to produce a protein that makes them resistant to herbicide glyphosate Golden rice contains genes from daffodil plants and from a bacterium, so that the organge pigment B- carotene is produce in rice grains. B-carotene is a precursor to vitamin A. The development of Golden rice was intended as a solution to the problema of vitamin A deficiency, which is a significant cause of blindness among children globally.

15 CLONING Clone is a group of genetically identical organisms or a group of cells derived from a single parent cell. Where do clones come from? Naturally by asexual reproduction Identical twins are genetically identical Eggs fertilized in vitro can develop into a multicelular embryo that can be separated into individual cells. Using non-reproductive cells  dolly


17 HUMAN GENOME PROJECT Co-operiative venture between many different independent research groups Obtained a sequence of the human genome 25,000 genes. Pharmacogenomics  links differences in genomic information in different populations to any differences in their response to drug treatment Bioinformatics  use of computers to store and analyse the huge amounts of data being generated by the sequencing of genomes. Facilitates evolution studies Studes of particular genetic disorders in humans using orgnisms such as mice that have similar DNA sequences.


19 SOURCE Allot A. and Mindorff D. (2007) Biology Course Companion – IB Diploma Programme. 2nd ed. Oxford


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