+ Needs Assessment Used to determine the specific physical activity-related needs of the target population Techniques used to determine the needs: Focus group Nominal group Community Form Interviews Surveys Observation
+ Program Planning Individuals that have vested interest in the program should be identified and involved in the program. These individuals than become your program developers Plan should be based on: Results of the need assessment Cornerstones Proven theories and models Effective interventions Focus groups
+ Program Developers 1. Indentify potential program partners -Financial supporters, -Sponsors -Agencies, and -Organizations 2. Develop goals and objectives of the program (based on need assessment) 3. Develop interventions from variety of approaches -Information approaches (e.g., increase awareness) -Behavioral approaches (e.g., remove barriers) -Social approaches (e.g., include the family, worksites & community) -Environmental and policy approaches (e.g., free public transportation) 4.Assure that adequate resources are available for the program that is planned
+ Theoretical Basis Interventions that are based from theory have higher rates of adherence Dominate theories used today: Social cognitive theory Transtheoretical model Self-determintation theory
+ Use Effect Sizes from Meta-Analyses Meta-analyses involves many of the studies combined together to determine it effect size (influence). For example, Dishman & Buckworth (1996) meta analysis involving 127 studies determined the success of physical activity interventions effect size was moderate to high. The following were considered to be the most powerful: Application of behavioral modification principles Use of mediated delivery of information Prescription of low-to-moderate-intensity physical activity
+ Use of focus groups Focus groups are small groups of prospective participants who get together to discuss things that are important to them related to the intervention (in this case the program). Targeted population (e.g., single parents, obese) If you include their input the chances they will participate in the program are greater.
+ Program Implementation Safety of participant and staff Competent and trained staff should conduct the intervention activities Advertise the intervention to members of target population
+ Program Evaluation Three types of evaluation Process – participant provided feedback continuously through the implementation of the program and/or intervention(s) about their exercise behavior. Impact – a summative evaluation given at the end of the program/interventio(s) to determine short term exercise behavior change and/or effects. Outcome – evaluating the focus group or participants exercise adherence maybe months, or years after the program and/or intervention(s) has ended or been implemented to determine long-term behavior change. PA professionals need to collect specific data that they need to determine if the program is successful.
+ In summary Four cornerstones (need assessment, program development, program implementation, and program evaluation) are necessary steps in program development. Interventions based on proven theories, models, and met- analysis studies are more effective in promoting adherence.