2 How do we figure out what a word means if we don’t know it? Today’s Warm-upHow do we figure out what a word means if we don’t know it?
3 Learning Objective Define affix, prefix, suffix, and root word Analyze the use of root words and affixesAnalyze the use of Greek and Latin word roots to *determine the meaning of words.
4 VocabularyEnglish vocabulary include short words like the article a as well as longer word such as inextricably and denunciation.Short word such as speak and solve are called base wordsBase words cannot be reduced to smaller parts.Other words can be added to them to produce longer words with various meanings.
5 Word Parts There are two kinds of word parts: roots and affixes. A root is a word part that comes from another language, such as Greek or Latin.An affix is a word part that can be attached to either a root or a base word to create a new word.
6 AffixesAffixes can be divided into two categories: prefixes (appear at the beginning of words) and suffixes (appear at the end of words).Common PrefixesCommon SuffixesBi two-al adjectival suffixAnti against-fy verb suffixInter between-ic adjectival suffixPre before-ion noun suffixSuper above-ism noun suffixTrans across-ize verb suffixDis not-ous adjectival suffix
7 Suffixes: -ful joyful -ly sadly -ness kindness Prefixes: un- undo APKPrefixes:un- undore- refillpro- for,forwardPrefixes are at the beginning of words.pre- means beforefix means attach, repairSuffixes:-ful joyful-ly sadly-ness kindnessSuffixes are at the end of words.So, “prefix” means “attached before.”
8 A root is a set of letters that have meaning. It is the most basic form . Affixes are added to the root to create a new word.Example:The Latin root ject means “throw”So project can mean “to throw forward”A root can be at the front, middle or end of a word.
9 English words can have all three parts: prefix + root + suffixab + duct + edaway from + to lead/pull + verb: past tenseabducted means ”pulled or lead away from”i.e. The general was abducted by masked gunmen.WordMeaninggeologyearth study / study of the earthtelegraphdistance writing / writing that travels fartricyclethree wheelsasocialnot being companionable /not wanting to join others
10 Check it out Roots Affixes Latin Root: tang, meaning “touch” Prefix: in-, meaning “not”Greek Root: chrome, meaning “color”Suffix: -ible, meaning “able to”
11 ApplyFor example one could analyze the word intangible, using the chart shown previously.First break the word into its parts:PREFIX ROOT SUFFIX ENGLISH WORDIn tang ible = intangibleTang is a latin roots meaning “touch”In is a prefix meaning “not”-ible is a suffix meaning “able to”
12 MeaningThe meaning of a word is related to the meaning of its word parts.To unlock the meaning of an unfamiliar word, break the word down into its component parts; then think about the meaning of the word’s affixes and root.
13 Which one of the following shows a root with an affix? bicycle hippopotamusHow did you know?
14 Word FamiliesA group of English words may be derived from the same word part of root. Such a group is called a word family.You can use this knowledge to help you determine the meaning of unknown words.Try this out:Shared roots: solo, solitary, solitudeRoot: sol= ?
15 Answer: Alone, can you think of other words in the family? SolitareSoloistBased on your knowledge of the root and the meaning of other words in the same family, try to define the meaning of the above words.Solitare- a card game played by one personSoloist- one who performs alone
16 root + suffixbiologybio = life-logy = study ofSo it means:“the study of life”astrology astro = stars -logy = study of So it means: "the study of stars”
17 The soldier had empathy for the prisoner. prefix + rootenamoren- = havingamor = loveWhat does enamor mean?“having love”empathyem- = havingpathy = feelingSo it means:“having feeling”The soldier had empathy for the prisoner.
18 root + root pseudonym aqueduct pseudo = false aque = water nym = name ”false name”Samuel Clemens wrote under the pseudonym “Mark Twain.”aqueductaque = waterduct = to lead/pullWhat is an aqueduct used for?How do you know that?
19 Try one: Words: Diminish Diminutive Minimum What do these words have in common?Which words do you know?What do you think the meaning of the root is?
20 Word Family Practice Questions: Word family: ethnicity, ethnic, ethnographer Root: ethn Meaning:OceanNationHesitation
21 Word Family Practice Questions: Word family: maniac, maniacal Root: mania Meaning:EducationSanitationMadness
22 Word Family Practice Questions: Word family: epidermis, dermatology Root: derm Meaning:SkinBodyMind
23 Word Family Practice Questions: Word Family: laboratory, labor Root: lab Meaning:WorkGoodWeak
24 Let’s see what you know: Divide and indivisible are members of the same word family. Which root so they share?A. –vis B. -visible C. -div-What is the meaning of this root?A. separate B. shrink C. junkWhat is another member of the same word family?A. December B. dividend C. invisible