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Roots and Affixes How words are created.

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Presentation on theme: "Roots and Affixes How words are created."— Presentation transcript:

1 Roots and Affixes How words are created

2 How do we figure out what a word means if we don’t know it?
Today’s Warm-up How do we figure out what a word means if we don’t know it?

3 Learning Objective Define affix, prefix, suffix, and root word
Analyze the use of root words and affixes Analyze the use of Greek and Latin word roots to *determine the meaning of words.

4 Vocabulary English vocabulary include short words like the article a as well as longer word such as inextricably and denunciation. Short word such as speak and solve are called base words Base words cannot be reduced to smaller parts. Other words can be added to them to produce longer words with various meanings.

5 Word Parts There are two kinds of word parts: roots and affixes.
A root is a word part that comes from another language, such as Greek or Latin. An affix is a word part that can be attached to either a root or a base word to create a new word.

6 Affixes Affixes can be divided into two categories: prefixes (appear at the beginning of words) and suffixes (appear at the end of words). Common Prefixes Common Suffixes Bi two -al adjectival suffix Anti against -fy verb suffix Inter between -ic adjectival suffix Pre before -ion noun suffix Super above -ism noun suffix Trans across -ize verb suffix Dis not -ous adjectival suffix

7 Suffixes: -ful joyful -ly sadly -ness kindness Prefixes: un- undo
APK Prefixes: un- undo re- refill pro- for, forward Prefixes are at the beginning of words. pre- means before fix means attach, repair Suffixes: -ful joyful -ly sadly -ness kindness Suffixes are at the end of words. So, “prefix” means “attached before.”

8 A root is a set of letters that have meaning. It is the most basic form . Affixes are added to the root to create a new word. Example: The Latin root ject means “throw” So project can mean “to throw forward” A root can be at the front, middle or end of a word.

9 English words can have all three parts:
prefix + root + suffix ab + duct + ed away from + to lead/pull + verb: past tense abducted means ”pulled or lead away from” i.e. The general was abducted by masked gunmen. Word Meaning geology earth study / study of the earth telegraph distance writing / writing that travels far tricycle three wheels asocial not being companionable / not wanting to join others

10 Check it out Roots Affixes Latin Root: tang, meaning “touch”
Prefix: in-, meaning “not” Greek Root: chrome, meaning “color” Suffix: -ible, meaning “able to”

11 Apply For example one could analyze the word intangible, using the chart shown previously. First break the word into its parts: PREFIX ROOT SUFFIX ENGLISH WORD In tang ible = intangible Tang is a latin roots meaning “touch” In is a prefix meaning “not” -ible is a suffix meaning “able to”

12 Meaning The meaning of a word is related to the meaning of its word parts. To unlock the meaning of an unfamiliar word, break the word down into its component parts; then think about the meaning of the word’s affixes and root.

13 Which one of the following shows a root with an affix?
bicycle hippopotamus How did you know?

14 Word Families A group of English words may be derived from the same word part of root. Such a group is called a word family. You can use this knowledge to help you determine the meaning of unknown words. Try this out: Shared roots: solo, solitary, solitude Root: sol= ?

15 Answer: Alone, can you think of other words in the family?
Solitare Soloist Based on your knowledge of the root and the meaning of other words in the same family, try to define the meaning of the above words. Solitare- a card game played by one person Soloist- one who performs alone

16 root + suffix biology bio = life -logy = study of So it means: “the study of life” astrology astro = stars -logy = study of So it means: "the study of stars”

17 The soldier had empathy for the prisoner.
prefix + root enamor en- = having amor = love What does enamor mean? “having love” empathy em- = having pathy = feeling So it means: “having feeling” The soldier had empathy for the prisoner.

18 root + root pseudonym aqueduct pseudo = false aque = water nym = name
”false name” Samuel Clemens wrote under the pseudonym “Mark Twain.” aqueduct aque = water duct = to lead/pull What is an aqueduct used for? How do you know that?

19 Try one: Words: Diminish Diminutive Minimum
What do these words have in common? Which words do you know? What do you think the meaning of the root is?

20 Word Family Practice Questions:
Word family: ethnicity, ethnic, ethnographer Root: ethn Meaning: Ocean Nation Hesitation

21 Word Family Practice Questions:
Word family: maniac, maniacal Root: mania Meaning: Education Sanitation Madness

22 Word Family Practice Questions:
Word family: epidermis, dermatology Root: derm Meaning: Skin Body Mind

23 Word Family Practice Questions:
Word Family: laboratory, labor Root: lab Meaning: Work Good Weak

24 Let’s see what you know:
Divide and indivisible are members of the same word family. Which root so they share? A. –vis B. -visible C. -div- What is the meaning of this root? A. separate B. shrink C. junk What is another member of the same word family? A. December B. dividend C. invisible

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