Recurring floods Foreign Invaders Changes in climate Geological changes at the mouth of the Indus River Population Growth
In 326 BCE, the Greek leader Alexander the Great invaded India The Indians used 200 war elephants and in a fierce battle, 12,000 Greeks were killed. Alexander won a great victory in Northern India, which extended his empire to the Indus River. 3 years later he died and most of his men left India The significance of his conquest was: Earliest contacts between Greek & Indian cultures Influenced Buddhist painting and sculpture Showed Indian leaders the need for unity
The 1 st dynasty of Indian Emperors Chandragupta Maurya (323 BCE) - Indian noble who unified Northern India and won fame as a soldier - Made the capital Pataliputra - Government was a monarchy - Known as the 1 st Indian emperor to rule India
Asoka (273 BCE) - Grandson of Chandragupta - His kingdom united almost all of the Indian subcontinent - He was 1 st known as a conqueror, but when he saw 100s of 1000s people killed or wounded during one his conquests he converted to Buddhism and turned to peace. - He had the teaching of Buddha written on stone columns to help guide his people - He sent missionaries to other countries to teach them about Buddhism - He ended India’s harsh system of punishment and religious sacrifice of animals.
Andhra Empire, was a royal Indian dynasty based from Dharanikota and Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh. The territory of the empire covered much of India from 230 BCE onward. The Satavahanas are credited for establishing peace in the country, resisting the onslaught of foreigners after the decline of Mauryan Empire.
They are known for their patronage of Buddhism which resulted in Buddhist monuments from Ellora. First Indian state to issue coins struck with their rulers embossed. In there decline the empire was split up into small city states.
(193 BC – after 170 BCE) was the third and greatest emperor. During the reign of Khārabē ḷ a, the Chedi dynasty of Ka ḷ inga ascended to eminence and restored the lost power and glory of Ka ḷ inga, which had been subdued since the devastating war with Ashoka.
the Ka ḷ inga state had a formidable maritime reach with trade routes linking it to (Sri Lanka), Burma Siam (Thailand), Vietnam, (Cambodia), Borneo, Bali, Samudra Although religiously tolerant, Khārabē ḷ a patronised Jainism.
Maurya, ancient Indian dynasty (c.325–c.183 B.C.) Asoka, Indian emperor (c.273–c.232 B.C.) of the Maurya dynasty Harsha, Indian emperor (606–47) Prithvi Raj, ruler of the Chauan dynasty of N. India (d. 1192) Mughal, Muslim empire in India (1526–1857) Babur, founder of the Mughal empire of India (1494– 1530) Humayun, second Mughal emperor of India (1530–56) Sher Khan, Afghan ruler in N. India (1540–45) Akbar, Mughal emperor of India (1556–1605)
1 st to 3 rd CE Kushans were a dynasty that united the tribes of central Asia Greatest king was Kanishka, who adopted Buddhism as a state religion. They introduced Divine Kingship, where the ruler is both the political and spiritual head of state They controlled trade from the North and western coast of India and to Rome & the Mediterranean Kings were wealthy and powerful and introduced gold coins to India. Trade along the Silk Road to China was very important to the Kushans
The Guptas is a dynasty that led India’s Golden Age Started by Chandra Gupta (320 CE) Hinduism gradually absorbed Buddhism Science, Mathematics & Astronomy flourished It was a creative time for art, architecture, painting, sculpture, poetry, drama and fables The Gupta Empire fell because of the invasion of Huns from Central Asia Some descendants of the Huns became wealthy warrior-princes. They became a close-knit warrior class called rajputs
Great ruler of the Golden Age People lived in harmony Criminals were not tortured Land tax was no more than 1/6 th of the owner’s produce Constructed educational institutions, highways, built hospitals and supported religious institutions Accepted different religions Arranged for debates and performance of plays Spent 1/4 th of his state income on charity