Presentation on theme: "Hypertension aka High Blood Pressure How Sodium and Potassium Affect blood pressure."— Presentation transcript:
Hypertension aka High Blood Pressure How Sodium and Potassium Affect blood pressure
Sodium Table salt is sodium chloride, NaCl. It is 40% sodium by weight; one teaspoon of salt contains about 2300 milligrams of sodium Recommendation is to limit sodium chloride to one teaspoon a day from all sources– and even less for African Americans.
Sodium in the Body Sodium and potassium work together in the body to maintain normal water balance Both sodium and potassium chemically attract water, to maintain an optimal level of water in and out of cells Water balance and cell functions are by a balance of sodium and potassium Body’s adaptive mechanisms provide a buffer against upsets in water balance due to high sodium intake– up to a point.
Blood Pressure Systolic blood pressure is highest at heartbeat and diastolic is least between pulses Normal blood pressure is less than 120/80 mm of mercury Prehypertension is 120/80-139/89 Hypertension is 140/90 mmHg and higher Several measurements are needed
Hypertension High blood pressure is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease. It accounts for two- thirds of all strokes and half of heart disease. US Rates of Hypertension
Causes of Hypertension 10% of all cases of hypertension can be directly linked to a cause 90% with no identifiable cause: essential hypertension Risk factors for hypertension have been identified Dietary factors are the most important Evidence linking diet to hypertension shows relationship between average salt intake and hypertension
Hypertension-Promoting Diet & Lifestyle (if you wanted to develop high blood pressure) Eat mostly processed foods high in sodium Eat more calories than you can use Drink alcohol beverages in excess Eat few dairy products or sources of calcium Eat few vegetables, fruits; avoid potassium- rich foods Enjoy plenty of foods high in saturated fat Avoid exercise
Epidemiological Studies In countries with low sodium intakes, rate of hypertension is low In countries with moderate sodium intakes, rate of hypertension is moderate…
Causes of Hypertension Not everyone is equally susceptible to high- salt diets People often develop salt-sensitivity before they develop hypertension. & not everyone with hypertension is salt- sensitive. But over 50% of people with hypertension and 26% of people with normal blood pressure are salt sensitive
Salt Sensitivity Most of our population will develop high blood pressure as they age But when people reduce salt intake, they are likely to maintain normal blood pressure longer
Major Sources of Sodium in US Diet Processed foods 77% Fresh foods 12% Salt added at the table 10% Salt added during cooking 3% Which foods are high in sodium?
10 Foods responsible for over 40 % of people’s sodium intake Breads and rolls Luncheon meat such as deli ham or turkey Pizza & cheese Poultry Soups Pasta dishes with cheese, cream or meat sauces with salt added Meat dishes such as meat loaf Snack foods like potato chips, pretzels and popcorn.
Fix Textbook Error, p. 23-23 1 Teaspoon 2300 mg
Balance Sodium and Potassium High potassium intake helps relax blood vessels and excrete the sodium, so decreases blood pressure. We need more potassium than sodium each day! Americans average about 3,300 mg of sodium per day We get only about 2,900 mg of potassium each day.
TO Avoid Hypertension The DASH diet is high in potassium Even better at reducing blood pressure than a low salt diet!
Simplified DASH Diet 1. Have 1 small glass of fruit juice and 3 more servings of fruit every day— fresh, frozen or canned.
Simplified DASH Diet 2. Eat 4 servings of vegetables every day. French fries don't count! Sweet potatoes, broccoli, greens, carrots, tomatoes, tossed salad— you get the idea!
Simplified DASH Diet, cont. 3. Have 2 servings of nonfat or low-fat dairy products daily, including yogurt. Count soy beverage or other high-calcium beverages here, too.
Simplified DASH Diet, cont. 4. Limit red meat and saturated fats
Simplified DASH Diet, cont. 5. Limit sweets. Make fruits your main sweets and snacks.
Simplified DASH Diet, cont. 6. Use a salt substitute like "no-salt" lightly at the table (not in cooking—it gets bitter) NO!
Enjoy Foods Naturally Low in Sodium Learn to use spices, peppers, onions, garlic, and lemon juice for flavor A low sodium diet and the DASH diet are two separate ways to reduce your risk of hypertension— Or to treat it!
How Is Hypertension Treated? Lifestyle and diet changes, and medications Weight loss, smoking cessation, regular exercise DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Treating Hypertension) Low sodium diet Low alcohol consumption
Blood Pressure Medications Prescribed when diet & lifestyle changes don't bring pressure down to normal. Still need to follow diet and lifestyle changes Side effects of various anti-hypertensive medications may include: excess urination, low blood potassium, weakness, fatigue, depression, confusion, erectile dysfunction, headache, edema However, some people have no side effects from medication.
IN THE UNITED STATES Half the people who have hypertension don’t know it Half of those who know it, aren’t getting treatment Half of those getting treatment, aren’t treated adequately to control BP Many unnecessary strokes, heart attacks, and early deaths
Farm Stand: Good source of Low Sodium, High Potassium, And Low Cost Foods