# Equilibrium Processes in Gases Slow (almost unchanging) with respect to the typical relaxation times of a system Equilibrium processes are represented.

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Equilibrium Processes in Gases Slow (almost unchanging) with respect to the typical relaxation times of a system Equilibrium processes are represented by lines in the state space Processes in Ideal Gases Constant volume (isochoric) processes: No work done 1. law: Q V=const. 0 Equilibrium process: Quasi-static process which transforms the system through states of thermal equilibrium

Constant pressure (isobaric) processes P=const. 1. law: Q m P=const. Isothermal processes Work done @ T=const. T=const.

Adiabatic processes:No heat heat transfer in or out of the systemQ=0 How to realize an adiabatic process 1 2 very good insulation rapid changes in volume no time for heat to be exchanged 1. law: 0 Note: although the constant volume specific heat appears, expression applies to any process that starts and ends in equilibrium V0V0 In the limit V0V0 V0V0 First order differential equation or

Solution ofby integration with different from constant above

What is the work done in an adiabatic equilibrium process during entire adiabatic process Starting at P 0 and V 0

Graphic summary of various processes on a PV diagram: Constant volume (isochoric) process Constant pressure (isobaric) process Constant temperature (isothermal) process T high T low Isotherms for reference adiabatic process Q=0 Adiabat steeper than isotherm

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