Presentation on theme: "Transmission Lines …….. Conductor Material"— Presentation transcript:
1 Transmission Lines …….. Conductor Material Utility companies use different conductor materials for different applications.Copper, aluminum, and steel are the primary types of conductor materials used in electrical power systems.Other types of conductors, such as silver and gold, are actually better conductors of electricity; however, cost prohibits wide use of these materials.CopperCopper is an excellent conductor and is very popular. Copper is very durable and is not affected significantly by weather.
2 Transmission Lines …….. Aluminum Aluminum is a good conductor but not as good or as durable as copper.However, aluminum costs less. Aluminum is rust resistant and weighs much less than copper.SteelSteel is a poor conductor when compared to copper and aluminum; however, it is very strong.Steel strands are often used as the core in aluminum conductors to increase the tensile strength of the conductor.
3 Transmission Lines …….. Conductor Types Power line conductors are either solid or stranded.Rigid conductors such as hollow aluminum tubes are used as conductors in substations because of the added strength against sag in low-profile substations when the conductor is only supported at both ends.Rigid copper bus bars are commonly used in low-voltage switch gear because of their high current rating and relatively short lengths.The most common power line conductor types are shown below:SolidSolid conductors (Figure 3-2) are typically smaller and stronger than stranded conductors. Solid conductors are usually more difficult to bend and are easily damaged.
5 Transmission Lines …….. Stranded Stranded conductors have three or more strands of conductor material twisted together to form a single conductor.Stranded conductors can carry high currents and are usually more flexible than solid conductors.Aluminum Conductor, Steel-Reinforced (ACSR)To add strength to aluminum conductors.Figure shows steel strands that are used as the core of aluminum stranded conductors. These high-strength conductors are normally used on long span distances, for minimum sag applications.
7 Transmission Lines …….. American Standard Wire Gauge (AWG) The American Standard Wire Gauge is an old standard that is used for relatively small conductor sizes.The scale is in reverse order i.e. the numbers get smaller as the conductors get larger. The circular mils standard of measurement is used for large conductor sizes.Circular MilsConductors greater than AWG 4/0 are measured in circular mils (cmills). One circular mil is equal to the area of a circle having a inch (1 mil) diameter.For example, the magnified conductor in the Figure 3-5 has 55 circular mils.Conductors sized in circular mils are usually stated in thousands of circular mils (i.e., kcm).
8 Transmission Lines ……..Table 3-1 shows typical conductor sizes and associated current ratings for outdoor bare ACSR conductors having a current rating of 75°C rise above ambient. The table also shows the equivalent copper size conductor.
9 Transmission Lines …….. Insulation and Outer Covers Metal wire current-carrying conductors can be insulated or non-insulated when in use.Normally, there are two types of insulation in electrical power transmission.Insulators are used by means for separating the bare wires from the grounded structures.Other type of insulator are used as outer cover for conductor. High-voltage insulated conductors are normally used in underground systems. Insulated low-voltage service wires are also used for residential overhead and underground lines.Insulator use plastic, rubber, or other jacketing materials for electrical isolation.
10 Transmission Lines …….. Voltage Classes Table 3-2 shows the various transmission and subtransmission system voltages.It is quite common to use subtransmission voltages to transport power over medium distances (i.e., across large populated areas) or to transport power over long distances if the total current requirement is low, such as for serving less populated areas that are far away.The higher transmission system voltages tend to be more standardized compared to the lower distribution voltages.
13 Transmission Lines ……..Voltage Class is the term often used by equipment manufacturers and power companies to identify the voltage that the equipment will be connected.A manufacturer might use the voltage class to identify the intended system operating voltage for their equipment.For example, a circuit breaker might be a 125 kV voltage class piece of equipment that is operating at a nominal 115 kV voltage.Voltage Category is often used to identify a group of voltage classes. For example, “extra high voltage” (or EHV) is a term used to state whether an equipment manufacturer builds transmission equipment or distribution equipment, which would be categorized as “high-voltage equipment” (or HV).
14 Transmission Lines …….. Underground Transmission Underground transmission is usually three to ten times more costly than overhead transmission due to right of way requirements, obstacles, and material costs.It is normally used in urban areas or near airports where overhead transmission is not an option.Cables are made of solid dielectric polyethylene materials and can have ratings on the order of 400 kV. Figure 3-6 shows a 230 kV underground transmission line.
17 Transmission Lines …….. Dc Transmission Systems dc Transmission systems are sometimes used for economic reasons, system synchronization benefits, and power flow control.The three-phase ac transmission line is converted into a two-pole (plus and minus) dc transmission line using bidirectional rectification converter stations at both ends of the dc line.The converter stations convert the ac power into dc power and vice versa. The reconstructed ac power must be filtered for improved power quality performance before being connected to the ac system.
19 Transmission Lines …….. Dc Transmission Systems……. dc transmission lines do not have phases; instead, they have positive and negative poles.There are no synchronization issues with dc lines. The frequency of dc transmission is zero and, therefore, there are no concerns about variations in frequency between interconnected systems.A 60 hertz system can be connected to a 50 hertz system using a dc line. For economic reasons, the dc line may have advantages over the ac line in that the dc lines have only two conductors versus three conductors in ac lines.
20 Transmission Lines …….. Dc Transmission Systems……. For economic reasons, the dc line may have advantages over the ac line in that the dc lines have only two conductors versus three conductors in ac lines.The overall cost to build and operate a dc line, including converter stations, may cost less than an equivalent ac line due to the savings from one less conductor, narrower right of ways, and less expensive towers.