Presentation on theme: "Biomass is a biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. biomass can equally apply to both animal and vegetable derived material."— Presentation transcript:
Biomass is a biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. biomass can equally apply to both animal and vegetable derived material.
Biomass is carbon based and is composed of a mixture of organic molecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, often nitrogen and also small quantities of other atoms.
Plants may subsequently be eaten by animals and thus converted into animal biomass. However the primary absorption is performed by plants. If plant material is not eaten it is generally either broken down by micro-organisms or burned: 1. If broken down it releases the carbon back to the atmosphere, mainly as either carbon dioxide (CO2) or methane (CH4), depending upon the conditions and processes involved. 2. If burned the carbon is returned to the atmosphere as CO2
CO2 is realeased back into the atmoshpere Plants absorb carbon dioxide through photosynthesis Plants are harvested substainably to produced biomass Plants are burned and Biomass is converted into heat and power.
Photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the bonds of sugar. This process occurs in plants and some algae (Kingdom Protista). Plants need only light energy, CO2, and H2O to make sugar. The process of photosynthesis takes place in thechloroplasts, specifically using chlorophyll, the green pigment involved in photosynthesis.
How does biomass produce electricity? chemical energy is converted into electricity, heat, or liquid fuels using a number of different energy conversion processes. Two of these processes are as follows: Solid biomass fuels are burned in a boiler. The heat produced turns water to steam which is then used to turn a turbine generator to produce electricity. The second method involves gasifying the biomass and then burning it. The organic resources that are used to produce energy using these processes are collectively called biomass"
The general options for dealing with landfill gas (once collected) are as follows: 1.flare it 2.boiler - makes heat 3.internal combustion engine - makes electricity 4.gas turbine - makes electricity 5.fuel cell - makes electricity 6.convert the methane to methyl alcohol 7.clean it up enough to pipe it to other industries or into the natural gas lines So what should be done with landfill gas? The default option is to do nothing. Doing nothing leads to gas migration off-site and can cause explosions. The release of the methane creates some global warming problems and the release of the toxic contaminants can cause cancer and other health problems in local communities
Biomass reduces need for fossil fuelsAgricultural wastes will not be available if the basic crop is no longer grown. Biomass is always available and can be produced as a renewable resource. Additional work is needed in areas such as harvesting methods. Biomass fuel from agriculture wastes maybe a secondary product that adds value to agricultural crop. Land used for energy crops maybe in demand for other purposes, such as faming, conservation, housing, resort or agricultural use. Growing Biomass crops produce oxygen and use up carbon dioxide. iomass conversion projects are from animal wastes and are relatively small and therefore are limited. The use of waste materials reduce landfill disposal and makes more space for everything else. Research is needed to reduce the costs of production of Biomass based fuels. Carbon Dioxide which is released when Biomass fuel is burned, is taken in by plants In some cases is a major cause of pollution.