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1 Flash activity. These activities are not editable.
Conjunctions English Grammar and Skills Toolkit Conjunctions Photo © Ronald Sumners, Shutterstock.com Teacher’s notes included in the Notes Page Accompanying worksheet Flash activity. These activities are not editable. Web addresses Extension activities Icons key: For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation Sound 1 of 6 © Boardworks Ltd 2011

2 Learning objectives In this presentation you will…
Learn about subordinate conjunctions and how they are used to give us different kinds of information in a sentence 2 of 6 © Boardworks Ltd 2011

3 Subordinate conjunctions
There are lots of different subordinate conjunctions. Here are some of them: as soon as although even though until whereas because when since which unless despite so that A coordinate conjunction joins together two main clauses (clauses of equal importance); a subordinate conjunction joins together a main clause and a subordinate clause (i.e. clauses that are not of equal importance). The function of coordinate and subordinate conjunctions in sentences is explored in more detail in Clauses and Sentences Units 1–3ppt (a unit of Boardworks English Grammar and Skills Toolkit). whose before Subordinate conjunctions can be used to join clauses together. They help to give additional information about key ideas in the sentence.

4 Cause and effect, and reason
Some subordinate conjunctions show reason, and links between cause and effect. Ryan was tired because he had stayed up late watching TV. Nita is hungry even though she only just had breakfast. I will get good grades if I work hard at school. Conjunctive adverbs such as ‘therefore’, ‘as a result’ and ‘consequently’ are also often used to show links between cause and effect. These are looked at in more detail on slides 11–13 of Conjunctions.ppt (a unit of Boardworks English Grammar and Skills Toolkit). Worksheet One accompanies this slide. Photo © Geo M, Shutterstock.com Here are some more conjunctions which tell us about cause and effect, and reason. so that although in order to despite why unless Write three sentences using these conjunctions.

5 Time and place The following conjunctive adverbs (also known as ‘temporal connectives’) can also be used to show time and sequence: firstly, next, later, finally. Conjunctive adverbs are looked at in more detail on slides 11–13 of Conjunctions.ppt (a unit of Boardworks English Grammar and Skills Toolkit). Worksheet One accompanies this slide.

6 Similarity and contrast
Some subordinate conjunctions link ideas to show similarity and contrast. I love chips, just as my sister loves chips. Chips are much better than crisps. I like ketchup on my chips, whereas my sister prefers mayonnaise on her chips. Other subordinate conjunctions tell us more about nouns in sentences. Conjunctive adverbs such as ‘similarly’, ‘in contrast’ and ‘likewise’ can also be used to show similarity and contrast. ‘Who’, ‘which’ and ‘that’ are relative pronouns which function as subordinate conjunctions. Other examples include ‘who’ and ‘whoever’. These types of subordinate conjunctions are looked at in more detail in Clauses and Sentences – Unit 3.ppt (a unit of Boardworks English Grammar and Skills Toolkit). Photo © Elena Elisseeva, Shutterstock.com Lisa, who is my sister, eats way more chips than I do. Oxford, which is where I live, is a very pretty city. The book that my teacher gave me to read is boring.


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