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Liza Conyers, Ph. D Penn State University (814) 863-6115 Gender, Race, Poverty and HIV.

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Presentation on theme: "Liza Conyers, Ph. D Penn State University (814) 863-6115 Gender, Race, Poverty and HIV."— Presentation transcript:

1 Liza Conyers, Ph. D Penn State University (814) 863-6115 Gender, Race, Poverty and HIV

2 National Working Positive Coalition (NWPC) Who we are:  Persons living with HIV/AIDS, service providers, educators and researchers in HIV and employment Mission Promote research, development and implementation of effective practices in employment services Coordinate sharing and dissemination of this information Advocate for work options and opportunities for people living with HIV/AIDS

3 Overview Provide snapshot of initial findings of national employment needs survey  Compare outcomes by Gender (male and female)  Context for women respondents  Results of working women by race  Perceptions of ability to work Discussion

4 Survey Research 12 page survey  Paper and Internet formats (English & Spanish)  Collaborated with ASO, PWN & AIDS Alliance  Major Sections of survey Demographic information Knowledge, use and satisfaction with VR services Workplace issues (employed respondents) Considering work issues (unemployed respondents) Health status  Funded by NIDRR & NYS AIDS Institute

5 Demographics Differ By Gender Men Women 2,465 respondents 66%34%  Mean Age: 4646  Race: Black30%54% White43%24% Latino19%17% Other 9% 5%  Sexual Orientation: Heterosexual28%88% Gay65% 4% Bisexual 7% 8%

6 Women Face More Challenges Men Women  Women Higher rates poverty lower education Earn $15,000 per year or less49%60% High school/GED or less32%48%  Employment Status: Employed33%30% Not working67%70%

7 Women Less Informed About Employment Laws Men Women Americans with Disabilities Act* 47% 35% Reasonable Accommodations* 21% 13% Family and Medical Leave Act* 31%26% Workforce Investment Act 8% 9%

8 Women Less Informed About Services & Incentives Men Women Services  State Vocational Rehabilitation 31%27%  One Stop Career Centers 16%17% Work Incentives  Ticket to Work 23% 22%  Trial Work Period* 23%13%  Extended Medicare* 11% 8% No knowledge of laws, services or incentives* 27%31%

9 More Women Work in HIV Field Men Women Work related to HIV/AIDS 34% 57%  Need to include professional development training so these women can advance, if they want further development..

10 Context: Women’s Risk Factors Homeless 60% 52% *Problems with Mental Health49% 70% Incarceration 36% 30% Substance Abuse 53% 50% Domestic Violence 48% 56% Sexual Abuse 36% 44% WOC White

11 Economic Indicators by WOC vs. White POC White  WOC lower rates of employment Employed*26%41%  WOC higher rates poverty lower education Earn $15,000 per year or less*66%43% High school/GED or less*30%52%

12 Employed Women Still Have $$ Challenges High school/GED or less*30% 8% Earn $15,000 per year or less*28%14% Private Insurance*36%67% ADAP 23%22% Some Problem Paying Bills 66%57% WOC White

13 Limited Knowledge Among Working Women *ADA 46%70% *Reasonable Accommodation20%39% *Family Medical Leave Act 36%58% Workforce Investment Act10%4% Vocational Rehabilitation25%34% One Stop Career Centers 21%20% Ticket to Work27%28% Trial Work Period20%29% Don’t know any services19%9% WOC White

14 Working Women’s Concerns *Long Hours50%68% *Balance Roles61%75% Limited Sick Leave63%58% Health Risk61%55% Keep Medical Appt56%48% Physical Work50%49% Employment Probation35%30% Limited Breaks 31%40% Work with people28%18% Child Care25%16% WOC White

15 Health by WOC vs. White *Over 95 Adherence 62%80% *Employed at Diagnosis-Yes52%84% *Pain Interference27%38% *Energy Enough62%46% *Expect Health Stable75%58% Visible HIV7%6% Past Health Stable 56%56% WOC White

16 Potential Health & Prevention Benefits Since my current job, my….…(if not working prior) WOC White Self-care increased58%63% CD-4 count increased 44%54% Med Adherence increased 35%25% Alcohol use decreased* 49%21% Drug use decreased43%21% Unprotected sex decreased37%33% # of sex partners decreased24%23%

17 Unemployed Women WOC White  Able to work 41%25%  Not sure if could work 33%36%  Not able to work 26%40%

18 Summary Employment is related to positive health and prevention outcomes for many women  Need to attend to those where outcomes are not positive Women respondents reported lower incomes and lower educational levels than men Respondents had very limited knowledge of vocational services, organizations or other related resources. Need for vocational information and services to help improve outcomes for women with HIV/AIDS  Need to address structural barriers & health outcomes

19 Limitations and Future Research Initial descriptive findings  Need more sophisticated analysis to account for missing data and confounding influences Volunteer sample  May not represent all of those with HIV/AIDS in New York State More in-depth analysis will help to better understand factors that lead to different outcomes

20 Acknowledgements Positive Women’s Network National Association of People with AIDS AIDS Institute of New York State National Institute of Disability & Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) Maricela Carrera Paul Datti & PSU Research Team Eda Valero-Figueira Brendan Galivan Heather Homan, Heather Atkinson, Jonathan McClain Mark Misrok, President NWPC 20

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