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 Humanistic Perspective – 1970s  Individuals have the ability to › Be self-directed › Make wise choices › Develop themselves through leisure  The approach.

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Presentation on theme: " Humanistic Perspective – 1970s  Individuals have the ability to › Be self-directed › Make wise choices › Develop themselves through leisure  The approach."— Presentation transcript:


2  Humanistic Perspective – 1970s  Individuals have the ability to › Be self-directed › Make wise choices › Develop themselves through leisure  The approach defined › Holistic view of the person › Believe that children and adults are capable of change

3 › Each person is unique and possess dignity and worth › See people as being in dynamic interaction with the environment and not just reacting › People have a need to find meaning in their lives › People are primarily social beings who have a need to belong and feel valued › People are healthy and strive for personal satisfaction; yet go beyond their own needs to understand and care about others › People express a tendency toward self- actualization

4  Recreation Therapists emphasize the concept that the “whole person” is involved  Central to humanistic perspective – People have the freedom to change, make decisions, and assume responsibility for their actions, especially in leisure  Individuals seek stimulus through leisure instead of waiting for the environment to act on them – Reach unexplored potentials!

5  TR is interested in making individuals feel good about themselves through personal satisfaction  The CTRS assumes caring, understanding attitude provides opportunities in free and open environment and through person-to-person interactions  Enhance positive self-concepts and learn to grow beyond themselves and care about others

6  Humanistic psychology and Positive psychology assume individuals possess a self-actualizing tendency – development of human strengths and potentials  CTRSs help clients to experience positive emotions to negate negative emotions  Build on strengths and abilities to overcome problems  Promote optimal functioning across the full range of human functioning, from disorder and distress to health and fulfillment

7  Also focuses on maximizing the potential of which an individual is capable  Focuses not only on absence of physical illness but implies psychological and environmental wellness  Physical + Social + Mental well-being = High-Level Wellness  Health Promotion encourages highest levels of health

8  Component of High-Level Wellness – Treats the whole person and not the disease (like TR)  “well medicine” (wellness and health enhancement) (mind, body, spirit and environment vs.  “traditional medicine” (illness) (isolated parts and symptoms)  TR and High-Level Wellness is strikingly similar

9  TR deals with illness but not exclusively with illness – has historically promoted the goal of self-actualization, or facilitation of the fullest possible growth and development of client  Figure 4.1 pg 164 Illness-Wellness Continuum Death->->->->Peak Health  Leisurablity Model as client moves through continuum  We can’t depend on healthcare workers to “take care of us” – We must assume some responsibility – TR clients are CTRS partners in care

10  Health Protection = overcoming illness  Health Promotion = achievement of highest level of wellness possible  Stabilizing and Actualizing Tendencies are motivational forces that underlie Health Protection and Health Promotion  Stability maintains “steady state” to keep stress in a manageable range and protect us from biophysical and psychosocial harm – Force behind Health Protection

11  Actualization Tendency – Brings growth enhancement force emphasized by humanistic psychologists to the forefront – Health Promotion  Health is complex concept which involves coping adaptively, as well as growing and becoming  CTRSs contribute to health by assisting clients to fulfill their needs for stability and actualization  TR regains stability following a threat to health (protection) and assists in achieving high-level health (promotion)

12  We work from personal base of knowledge and beliefs  A philosophy reflects viewpoints (learned beliefs and values that direct behavior and attitude)  Concepts are vehicles of thought used to describe objects, properties, and events and the relationship between them.  Allow us to recognize similarities and differences and make generalizations about a phenomenon to tie together past and present and predict the future

13  Concepts are the building blocks of theories  Highly abstract concepts are called constructs (i.e. construct of wellness)  A Theory is a statement that relies on a set of interrelated concepts to form a systematic view of a phenomenon  Theories organize concepts and specifies relationships between concepts in an effort to present an understanding and explanation of a phenomenon (Chapter 2 – Theories and Therapies)

14  Models are representations of something  Models should make things simpler to understand  Shows the relationship between elements into a whole  Models of a profession offer an image or picture of the components of the discipline and how the parts fit together

15  Conceptual Models for a practice discipline must be more than a visual  “Practice Models” offer an image of the components of the discipline and how its parts fit and work together  Must direct practitioners in the process of intervening in the lives of clients and must be based on something  That’s where Theories come in – provide foundation for assumptions and gives theoretical basis for action

16  It is critical that CTRSs have well conceived models so they may understand their profession and interpret it to others  Leisure Ability Model (Peterson and Gunn, 1984)  Health Protection/Health Promotion Model ( Austin, 1991; 1998; 2001)  Some CTRSs endorse all-encompassing approach – Provision of recreation to individuals with disabilities

17  Some endorse narrower perspective – Emphasizes clinical interventions for treatment and rehabilitation  There has been no agreement across the discipline on one model  Austin contends that, due to TR being an emerging profession, practitioners will have the opportunity to select the “best fit” with philosophy and goals of their agency

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