# Thermodynamics Chapter 11.

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Thermodynamics Chapter 11

Heat, work and internal energy
Heat can be used to do work Work can transfer energy to a substance, which increases the internal energy of a substance.

Fig 11-1 Work increases the nail’s internal energy at the nail’s surface. This energy is transferred away from the nail’s surface as heat.

Internal Energy There are two ways to change the internal energy:
with work, and everything else. Everything else is defined as heat. Heat is the defined as the transfer of energy to a body that does not involve work or those transfers of energy that occur only because of a difference in temperature

Recall… Balloon over heated flask…
Energy transferred as heat turns water into steam. Energy from the steam does work against the force exerted by air outside the balloon.

Heat and Work Energy Both transferred to or from a system
SYSTEM – a collection of matter within a clearly defined boundary across which no matter passes All parts of a system are in thermal equilibrium with each other before and after a process adds or removes more energy.

SYSTEMS Example: Flask, water, balloon, and steam.
As the hot plate transferred energy as heat to the system, that system’s internal energy increased When the expanding steam (a part of the system) did work on the balloon, the system’s internal energy decreased WHY??

Heat  Work The decrease occurs because some of the energy transferred to the system as heat was transferred out of the system as work done on the balloon!

ENVIRONMENT Systems are often treated as if they are isolated, but in most cases it will interact with its surrounds The surroundings with which the system interacts are referred to as its environment.

WORK in terms of changing volume
Remember that… W=F x d and P = F/A Work = pressure (volume change) W = F x d A = F (Ad) = P(V2 – V1) A A Therefore, W = P(V2 – V1) work = Pressure x Volume

WORK = P(V)

If the gas volume remains constant, there is no displacement and NO WORK is done on or by the system. Work is done ONLY If the volume changes. If pressure increases and Volume remains constant – this is comparable to a force that does not displace mass even if the force is increased. Thus work is not done in either situation.

Thermodynamic Processes
Suppose the car’s windows are closed and parked inside a hot garage. Internal energy of system (inside the car) increases as energy is transferred as heat into the car from the hot air in the garage. Car’s heave steel and sealed windows keep the system’s volume constant Thus, no work is done by the system. All changes in the system’s internal energy are due to the transfer of energy as heat.

Isovolumetric Processes
Last example, car system, was an illustration of an isovolumetric (or constant volume) process. Isovolumetric Process = a thermodynamic process that takes place at constant volume so that no work is done on or by the system. Another example takes place inside a bomb calorimeter.

A small container in which a small quantity of a substance undergoes a combustion reaction
Energy released by the reaction increases the pressure and temperature of the gaseous reaction products. Walls are thick, thus NO CHANGE in volume of the gas; energy transferred only as HEAT

Internal Energy Internal energy remains constant in a constant-temperature process. When you are indoors in a controlled temperature—any temperature change outside the building, will not take place indoors. However, buildings are not perfectly sealed so changes in the pressure outside will also take place inside the building

Think about a balloon that has been inflated and sealed off.
As the atmospheric pressure inside the building slowly decreases, the balloon expands and slowly does work on the air outside the balloon. At the same time, energy is slowly transferred into the balloon as heat.

Net result of these two processes is that the air inside the balloon is at the same temperature as the air outside the balloon Thus, internal energy of the balloon’s air does not change The energy transferred out of the balloon as work is matched by the energy transferred into the balloon as heat.

ISOTHERMAL PROCESS This process  isothermal process
ISOTHERMAL PROCESS- a thermodynamic process that takes place at constant temperature and in which the internal energy of a system remains unchanged.

FIG 11-6 in textbook Transfer of energy as heat can occur in an isothermal process if it is assumed that the process takes place as a large number of very gradual, very small changes as shown above. When air inside balloon expands, its internal energy and temperature slightly decrease As soon as they decrease, the energy is transferred as heat from higher temp outside air to the air inside the balloon

FIG 11-6 in textbook The temperature and internal energy of the air inside the balloon end up rising to their original values Thus, the internal energy of the balloon’s air effectively remains CONSTANT!

Adiabatic Process A thermodynamic process during which work is done on or by the system but NO energy is transferred to or from the system as heat.

Adiabatic Process In an adiabatic process, the decrease in internal energy must be equal to the energy transferred from the gas as work. Ex: filling up a balloon with air from a compressed air tank This work is done by the gas pushing against the inner wall of the balloon and overcoming pressure exerted by the air outside the balloon. * As a result the balloon inflates

Adiabatic expansion and compression of gases is found in many applications…
Both refrigerators and internal combustion engines require that gases be compressed or expanded rapidly.

HOMEWORK Page 405 #1 Page 408 # 1 and 2

Chapter 11 Section 2: Thermodynamic Processes
Thermodynamics Chapter 11 Section 2: Thermodynamic Processes

1st law of thermodynamics
Considers both a system’s internal energy as well as work and heat. Change in a system’s internal energy = energy transferred to/from – energy transferred system as heat to/from system as work OR U = Q-W