Present Past Future Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect
Taking place in the present ◦ She reads a story to me. Repeated Actions ◦ We play tennis every Tuesday. Facts ◦ Windows are made of glass. Set by schedule ◦ The train leaves at 6pm Things happening in a sequence ◦ First you wet you hands, then you put soap on them, rinse and dry.
Active ◦ [Thing doing action] + [verb] + [thing receiving action] Once a week Tom cleans the car. The professor teaches the students. Passive ◦ [Thing receiving action] + [be] + [past participle of verb] + [by] + [thing doing action] Once a week, the car is cleaned by Tom. The students are taught by the professor.
Listen and fill in the blanks with the present form of the verbs you hear
Structure ◦ Verb+ed OR irregular verb (link on wiki) Completed Action in the Past ◦ I saw a movie yesterday. Series of Completed Actions ◦ I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice play to swim.
Duration in the Past ◦ I lived in Brazil for two years. Habits in the Past ◦ I studied French when I was a child. Past facts or Generalizations ◦ She was shy as a child, but now she is outgoing.
Active ◦ Tom repaired the car. ◦ I washed the dishes after breakfast. Passive ◦ The car was repaired by Tom. ◦ The dishes were washed by me after breakfast.
Structure ◦ [will + verb] OR [am/is/are + going to + verb] You will help him later. You are going to meet Jane tonight. WILL – Voluntary action ◦ I will send you the information when I get it. WILL – Express a Promise ◦ I will call you when I arrive.
“Be going to” – Express Plan ◦ He is going to spend his vacation in Hawaii. WILL or “Be going to” – Prediction ◦ The year 2222 will be an interesting year. ◦ The year 2222 is going to be an interesting year.
John will finish the work by 5:00. The work will be finished by John by 5:00. Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight. A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight. Which is which? – How do you know?
1. Ted: It is so hot in here! Sarah: I (turn) ___________________ the air- conditioning on. 2. I think he (be) ___________________ the next President of the United States. 3. After I graduate, I (attend) ___________________ medical school and become a doctor. I have wanted to be a doctor all my life.
4. A: Excuse me, I need to talk to someone about our hotel room. I am afraid it is simply too small for four people. B: That man at the service counter (help) ___________________ you. 5. As soon as the weather clears up, we (walk) ___________________ down to the beach and go swimming.
Structure ◦ [has/have + past participle] Experience ◦ I have taught in Mexico. Change over Time ◦ The government has become
Accomplishments ◦ Our son has learned how to read. An Uncompleted Action you are Expecting ◦ You haven’t mastered English, but you can communicate. Multiple Actions at Different Times ◦ I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this year. From the Past Until Now ◦ She has been in England for 6 months.
1. She (not / see) him for a long time. 1. (be / you) at school? 1. School (not / start) yet 2. (speak / he) to his boss? 1. No, he (have / not) the time yet.
1. A: Did you like the movie "Star Wars?" B: I don't know. I (see, never) ___________________ that movie. 2. Sam (arrive) ___________________ in San Diego a week ago. 3. My best friend and I (know) ___________________ each other for over fifteen years. We still get together once a week.
4. Stinson is a fantastic writer. He (write) ___________________ ten very creative short stories in the last year. One day, he'll be as famous as Hemingway. 5. I (have, not) ___________________ this much fun since I (be) ___________________ a kid. 6. Things (change) ___________________ a great deal at Coltech, Inc. When we first (start) ___________________ working here three years ago, the company (have, only) ___________________ six employees. Since then, we (expand) ___________________ to include more than 2000 full-time workers.
Structure ◦ [had + past participle] Completed action before another action in the past ◦ I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Hawaii. Started in the past and continued until another action in the past ◦ We had had that car for ten years until it broke down.
I can't believe I (get) _____ that apartment. I (submit) _____ my application last week, but I didn't think I had a chance of actually getting it. When I (show) _____ up to take a look around, there were at least twenty other people who (arrive) _____ before me. Most of them (fill, already) _____ out their applications and were already leaving. The landlord said I could still apply, so I did.
Structure ◦ will have + past participle You will have perfected your English by the time you come back from the USA. ◦ am/is/are + going to have + past participle You are going to have perfected your English before you come back from the USA. Both structures mean almost exactly the same thing
Completed action before another action in the future ◦ By next November, I will have received my promotion. Continued action before another action in the future ◦ I will have been in London six months by the time I leave.
Anne ____ (repair) her bike next week. We ____ (do) the washing by 8:00. She ____ (visit) Paris by the end of next year. I ____ (finish) this by 6:00. Sam ____ (leave) by next week. She ____ (discuss) this with her mother after tonight.