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Anatomy - Tuesday 5/12/2015 General Announcements

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1 Anatomy - Tuesday 5/12/2015 General Announcements
Student Presentations Overview PPT Fetal Pig Brain dissection intro Work Returned

2 Functions of the Nervous System
Sensory input—gathering information To monitor changes occurring inside and outside the body Changes = stimuli Integration To process and interpret sensory input and decide if action is needed Motor output A response to integrated stimuli The response activates muscles or glands


4 Structural vs. Functional Classification of the Nervous System
Structural Classification Describes everything in the entire Nervous system Breakdown based on structures/components that make up the entire system Functional Classification Describes components of the Peripheral Nervous System (not CNS) Breakdown based on what structures/components DO in the PNS

5 Structural Classification of the Nervous System

6 Structural Classification of the Nervous System
Central nervous system (CNS) Organs Brain Spinal cord Function Integration; command center Interpret incoming sensory information Issues outgoing instructions

7 Structural Classification of the Nervous System
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Nerves extending from the brain and spinal cord Spinal nerves—carry impulses to and from the spinal cord Cranial nerves—carry impulses to and from the brain Functions Serve as communication lines among sensory organs, the brain and spinal cord, and glands or muscles

8 Functional Classification of the Peripheral Nervous System
Sensory (afferent) division Nerve fibers that carry information to the central nervous system Motor (efferent) division Nerve fibers that carry impulses away from the central nervous system


10 Functional Classification of the Peripheral Nervous System
Motor (efferent) division (continued) Two subdivisions Somatic nervous system = voluntary Consciously controls skeletal muscles Autonomic nervous system = involuntary Automatically controls smooth and cardiac muscles and glands Further divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems

11 Nervous Tissue: Support Cells
Support cells in the nervous system are grouped together as “neuroglia” a.k.a. glial cells General functions Support Insulate Protect neurons Schwann cells form myelin sheath in PNS

12 Nervous Tissue: Neurons
Dendrite Neurons = nerve cells Cells specialized to transmit messages Major regions of neurons Cell body—nucleus and metabolic center of the cell Processes—fibers that extend from the cell body Axon Nucleus One Schwann cell Schwann cells, forming the myelin sheath on axon Axon terminal

13 Neuron cell body Dendrite

14 Nervous Tissue: Neurons
Processes outside the cell body Dendrites—conduct impulses toward the cell body Neurons may have hundreds of dendrites Axons—conduct impulses away from the cell body Neurons have only one axon arising from the cell body at the axon hillock

15 Nervous Tissue: Neurons
Axons End in axon terminals Axon terminals contain vesicles with neurotransmitters Axon terminals are separated from the next neuron by a gap Synaptic cleft—gap between adjacent neurons Synapse—junction between nerves

16 Nervous Tissue: Neurons
Myelin sheath—whitish, fatty material covering axons Schwann cells—produce myelin sheaths in jelly roll-like fashion around axons (PNS) Nodes of Ranvier—gaps in myelin sheath along the axon

17 Schwann cell cytoplasm Schwann cell plasma membrane Axon Schwann cell nucleus Myelin sheath

18 Neuron Cell Body Location
Most neuron cell bodies are found in the central nervous system Gray matter—cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers Nuclei—clusters of cell bodies & myelinated axons within the white matter of the central nervous system Ganglia—collections of cell bodies outside the central nervous system

19 Neuron Cell Body Location
Tracts—bundles of nerve fibers in the CNS Nerves—bundles of nerve fibers in the PNS White matter—collections of myelinated fibers (tracts) Gray matter—collections of mostly unmyelinated fibers and cell bodies

20 Functional Classification of Neurons
Sensory (afferent) neurons Carry impulses from the sensory receptors to the CNS Cutaneous sense organs Proprioceptors—detect stretch or tension Motor (efferent) neurons Carry impulses from the central nervous system to viscera, muscles, or glands Interneurons (association neurons) Found in neural pathways in the central nervous system Connect sensory and motor neurons

21 Functional Properties of Neurons
Irritability Ability to respond to stimuli Conductivity Ability to transmit an impulse

22 Action Potential - the change in electrical-chemical potential (movement of ions) that occurs between the inside and outside of a nerve or muscle fiber when it is stimulated, serving to transmit nerve signals. Axon of transmitting neuron Receiving neuron Action potential arrives. Dendrite Axon terminal Synaptic cleft

23 The neurotransmitter molecules diffuse across the synapse and bind to receptors on the membrane of the next neuron Transmitting neuron Vesicle fuses with plasma membrane. Neurotrans- mitter is released into synaptic cleft. Synaptic cleft Ion channels Neurotransmitter molecules

24 Regions of the Brain Cerebral hemispheres (cerebrum) Diencephalon
Brain stem Cerebellum

25 Cerebral hemisphere Diencephalon Cerebellum Brain stem

26 Parietal lobe Left cerebral hemisphere Frontal lobe Occipital lobe Temporal lobe Cerebellum Brain stem

27 Regions of the Brain: Cerebrum
Layers of the cerebrum Gray matter—outer layer in the cerebral cortex composed mostly of neuron cell bodies White matter—fiber tracts deep to the gray matter Corpus callosum connects hemispheres Basal nuclei—islands of gray matter buried within the white matter

28 For your final exam, you should know:
The terms that appear in this powerpoint The be familiar with the terms in your ‘Overview of the Brain’ packet.

29 Fetal Pig Brain Dissection
HW: watch a video on YouTube that shows how to dissect the brain (see homework website for link)


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