2 Its Uses and Characteristics MoneyIts Uses and Characteristics
3 Uses of Money Explained Money, as defined by dictionary.com, is:any circulating medium of exchange, including coins, paper money, and demand deposits.However, for the purposes of economics, money actually has three distinct uses, some of which are not adequately covered in the above definition.These uses are:a Medium of Exchangea Unit of Accounta Store of ValueUses of Money Explained
4 …a Medium of ExchangeBy definition, a Medium of Exchange is anything that is used to determine value during the exchange of goods and services.Money allows us to use systems of trade beyond the Barter System.Bartering is directly trading one good or service for another.Your money acts as a common ground for determining value.
5 …a Unit of AccountMoney can be used as a means to compare the values of goods and services.You can use the monetary value assigned to a specific good or service to compare it to one offered by a different provider.Money allows us to compare similar offers for goods and services to determine the best value.
6 …a Store of ValueMoney is used to maintain the value of a transaction over time.If you receive monetary compensation for a good or service, the actual amount that your received does not change if you do not use it immediately.You can spend, or exchange, your money at a later time without penalty.However, the functional value of the stored money may change over time due to other factors.Video Review
7 An item must have six key characteristics to be considered as “Money”. These Characteristics are:DurabilityPortabilityDivisibilityUniformityLimited SupplyAcceptabilityWhat then is Money?
8 DurabilityDurability means that the item must be able to withstand being used repeatedly.Items that are considered Currency, coins and paper bills used as money meet this requirement.
9 PortabilityPortability means that individuals are able to carry money with them and transfer it easily to other individuals.This is why coins and paper money have historically proved popular.
10 DivisibilityDivisibility means that the money can easily be divided into smaller units of value.Today, different coins and notes convey these fractional values.
11 UniformityUniformity means that all versions of the same denomination of currency must have the purchasing power.As an example, a $2 bill will still buy $2 worth of goods or services today.
12 Limited SupplyLimited Supply means that restrictions on the amount of money in circulation ensure that values remain relatively constant for the currency.The responsibility for maintaining an adequate money supply falls on the Federal Reserve System.
13 AcceptabilityAcceptability means that everyone must be able to use the money for transactions.In the United States this is indicated on our paper bills by the notation: “This note is legal tender for all debts, public and private”.
14 Commodity Money – Objects have value for other objects (bartering) Fiat Money – Money only has value because other people want your money. (Current value of money)Representative Money – Money has value because it represents something else. (Gold standard)Value of Money (#3)Video Review
15 The actions the Federal Reserve takes to influence the GDP and the rate of inflation in the economy. It is necessary to prevent inflation and the devaluing of the American dollar.Monetary Policy
18 1. Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) Open market operations – the buying and selling of bonds, bills and notes in order to alter the supply of money.Net worth = total assets minus total liabilitiesIf the FOMC wants to decrease the money supply, they will sell stocks, bonds and notes in order to take the money from those they bought it from. (#18)1. Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC)
19 2. Required Reserve Ratio The fraction of deposits banks are required to keep in reserve The Board of Governor’s decides the ratio.If the RRR decreases, then the banks can loan out more money.(#16)2. Required Reserve Ratio
20 3. The Discount Rate Video Review The interest rate that the Federal Reserve charges commercial banks for loans.Commercial banks borrow from the Federal Reserve as a last resort because the discount rate is higher than the federal funds rate. (#11) (#17)*Federal funds rate = the interest rate banks charge each other for loans.3. The Discount RateVideo Review
22 History of The Federal Reserve 1st Central BankBegan in 1790Roles: issued a single currency, reviewed banking practices, helped federal government carry out duties and powersProblems: Congress debated over the federal governments power to run banksEnded in 18112nd Central BankBegan in 1816Roles: Same as 1st Bank; restore orderProblem: Same as 1st Bank; too much federal power over banksEnded in 1836Federal Reserve Act of 1913Began in 1913Roles: provide a source of emergency cash, set interest rates, divide central banks into regionsProblem: Regional banks did not work together. They wanted different interest rates, etc.Reformed in 1935Present-Day Federal Reserve SystemBegan in 1935Roles: provide a source of emergency cash, set interest rates , more centralized power with a board, but district banks still brought ideas to the table.
25 Presidents of The Federal Reserve Janet YellenBen BernankeCurrently in office since 2014Held office fromBoth presidents are economists from the business world, the academic world or government. They have a keen sensitivity toward public opinion and the ability to use the media to affect public opinion.Presidents of The Federal Reserve
26 Roles of Titles Board of Governors Set reserve requirements Determine the discount rate policyDevelop and administer regulations for:Truth in Lending ActEqual Credit Opportunity ActHome Mortgage Disclosure ActTruth in Savings ActApprove or disapprove proposed bank mergers regulatory and supervisory responsibilities over: banks that are members of the System,bank holding companies,international banking facilities in the United StatesEdge Act and agreement corporationsforeign activities of member banksU.S. activities of foreign-owned banksRoles of Titles
27 Roles of Titles Continued Member BanksManage the Treasury Department’s checking account that processes Social Security checks, income tax refunds, and other government payments. = They are the banker for the U.S. government (#7).Sell, transfer and redeem bonds, bills and notesHold auctions for bonds, bills and notesReplace paper currency as it becomes worn outClear checksSupervise lending practices of banksLend money as a last resort at the discount rateResearch and publish economic activitiesHolds reserves for commercial banksConduct bank examinationsManage the money supplyRoles of Titles ContinuedQuick Review of the Fed Video
28 Federal Reserve Notes – or paper currency, is issued by the U. S Federal Reserve Notes – or paper currency, is issued by the U.S. Treasury Department.Coins are issued by the U.S. Mint.Who issues money?
29 Check Clearing Process Check is deposited, customer receives money.Check information is electronically sent to the clearing house (Federal Reserve) to check for accuracy and identity.Check information is sent to the writer’s bank to verify that the money is in the account.If the money is in the account, it is transferred to the customer’s bank.If the money is not in the account, a no pay message is sent to the customer’s bank and the customer will have to return the money and pay a fee.Check Clearing ProcessVideo 1Video 2
30 Money Creation Process by which money enters circulation Money multiplier formula𝑖𝑛𝑖t𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑎𝑠ℎ 𝑑𝑒𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡 𝑋 1 ÷𝑅𝑅𝑅VideoMoney Creation
31 The government cannot print more money than needed because it could cause inflation. Why not print money?
32 Unit 5: Lesson 2 Key Questions Study for the Lesson 1 QuizHomework