What is motivation? Who is responsible for motivating students to learn?
“Inner drive, impulse, emotion, or desire that moves one to a particular action”
Intrinsically motivated people take part in the activities just for their own sake not for materialistic rewards.
Create activities that increase students’ interest Encourage students to make decision about their own learning Give positive feedback Encourage interaction among students Use a variety of classroom activities Use learner-centered instructional methods
Tailor your teaching to the needs of the students. Identify Needs: Physical needs Psychological needs Learning styles Specific learning needs
Who learns? How much of what language? Under what conditions?
Individual Differences Aptitude to learning Attitudes to language Motives Personality Learning styles Learning strategies
What is being taught or learned? Oral skills Written skills Communication Grammar Dialect Culture
Situation and context Learning environment Formal classroom Individual Learning Teaching strategies Street and Community
Situational Factors Linguistic Input Individual Learning Differences Learner Processes Second Language Output Ellis’ (1985) Framework
Is a philosophy of teaching and learning which recognizes that each learner is unique. It Offers: a variety of ways for students to explore curriculum content (situational/individual factors) a variety of meaningful activities which allow students to understand information and ideas (input) a variety of options where students can demonstrate what they have learned (output)
Level 1 Create family tree using the family vocabulary Level 2 Create a crossword puzzle using the family and quantity vocabulary Level 3 Watch the family movie and answer the comprehension questions
Multiple levels of Intelligence Language production/reception processes Word retention.
◦ How to Integrate language skills? ◦ What kind of group activities? ◦ How to group students: Heterogeneously based on: Readiness Interest Learning profile
Differentiated instruction is interactive: ◦ Student to student interaction: small group- peer editing- whole class ◦ Teacher student interaction ◦ Interaction between the students and the materials: ◦ Books, videos, computer, etc.
◦ Content: The vocabulary, language structure or language functions introduced to the students ◦ Process: The activities designed for the students to be able to carry out the language functions aimed at in the instructional objectives ◦ Product: End products that show that the students have learned what they were supposed to learn
Differentiation and objectives Differentiation in activities Differentiation in assessment