Chapter 21 – Prentice Hall Physical Science

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Chapter 21 – Prentice Hall Physical Science
Magnetism Chapter 21 – Prentice Hall Physical Science

Magnetic Force Magnetic Force: the force a magnet exerts on either
another magnet on iron (or similar metal) on moving charges Magnetic poles: regions in a magnet where the magnetic force is strongest All magnets have two poles: north and south. Like poles repel; Unlike poles attract.

Magnetic Fields Magnetic field: the direction and strength of magnetic forces in a region around a magnet Strongest around the poles of a magnet Field lines point FROM the north pole TO the south pole Magnetosphere: Area surrounding Earth affected by Earth’s magnetic field Bill Allan, Katja Riedel, Richard McKenzie, Sylvia Nichol and Tom Clarkson. 'Atmosphere', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 21-Sep-2007 URL: Iron filings and compasses show the shape and direction of the magnetic field. (Source:

Magnetic Field lines around a magnet.
The field comes out of the North end of the magnet and goes into the South end of the magnet. The field is strongest at the poles. Notice the lines are closer together there.

Magnetic Domains A region in which many atoms have their magnetic fields aligned is called a magnetic domain

Magnetic domains and field lines

Magnetic Materials Ferromagnetic: material that can be magnetized because it contains magnetic domains In an unmagnetized material, the magnetic domains are randomly aligned. In a magnetized material, the domains have been aligned by placing the material in a magnetic field. Source:

Attraction and Repulsion

Attraction/Repulsion

Electricity and Magnetism
Electromagnetic force: force associated with charged particles Electric force results from charged particles. Magnetic force results from moving charges. + Velocity of moving charge (coming out of the page/screen toward you) Force of magnetic field on the charge N S

Solenoids and Electromagnets
Solenoid: a coil of current carrying wire The inside of a solenoid coil is like a bar magnet. If you place iron or nickel in the center of the coil, it will become magnetized. This is called an electromagnet. Electromagnet strength depends on: # of coils Current (controlled by voltage and resistance of wires in circuit)

What is an electromagnet?
When an electric current is passed through a coil of wire wrapped around a metal core, a very strong magnetic field is produced. This is called an electromagnet.

Strength of electromagnet
As the motion of the electrons around the wire (current) increases, the strength of the magnetic field increases As the number of coils increase, the electromagnet strength increases

What are electric motors?
An electric motor is a device which changes electrical energy into mechanical energy.

How does an electric motor work?
Go to the next slide 

Simple as that!!

Moving a loop of wire through a magnetic field produces an electric current. This is electromagnetic induction. A generator is used to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy by electromagnetic induction.

Electric Generator PHET APPLET

Electrical Generation
Electric generators are used to produce AC current. Mechanical energy moves the turbine containing the magnet, which in turns moves electrons to produce electricity. The turbine can be moved by: Nuclear reactions that heat water to create steam. Burning fossil fuels to heat water to create steam. Moving water to move the turbine. Wind blowing to move the turbine Geothermal resources to move the turbine Renewable vs. non-renewable methods. Geothermal heating & cooling Solar electricity for your home - RSG

Electromagnetic Devices
Generators: convert mechanical energy into electrical using an electromagnet See PhET Simulaton Electric Motors: use electrical energy through electromagnet to create mechanical energy (i.e. to turn an axle)

AC Generators Produce alternating current: charge flows first in one direction, then in another Used by most power plants today A loop of wire spinning through a magnetic field will create an alternating current. Note: current will flow only if the circuit connected to the generator is complete. Source:

DC Generators Produce direct current: charge flows in only one direction out of the generator Used in smaller applications Electric current in the loop of a DC generator alternates—that is, it changes directions—but in the outer circuit it travels in only one direction, and drops to zero twice with each rotation of the loop. By arranging more loops, a steadier direct current can be obtained. Source: "direct-current motor: electric current alternation." Online . Britannica Student Encyclopædia. 24 Mar. 2009  <

Transformers Transformer: device that increases or decreases the voltage and current of two linked AC circuits Used because electrical energy transmitted over large distances must travel at high voltages in order to reduce energy losses Changes voltage and current with 2 solenoids (or coils) that have different numbers of turns Source:

Step-down Transformer
Types of Transformers Named by what the transformer does to the voltage Step-up transformer: INCREASES voltage Decreases current Step-down transformer: DECREASES voltage Increases current 240,000 V Step-up Transformer 11,000 V V Step-down Transformer

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