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Professional Codes of Ethics Professionalism and Codes of Ethics.

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1 Professional Codes of Ethics Professionalism and Codes of Ethics

2 Starter Questions What is a "profession"?  the body of people in a learned occupation;  an occupation requiring special education  The term profession is applied to those persons who have specialized and technical skill or knowledge which they apply, for a fee, to certain tasks that ordinary and unqualified people cannot ordinarily undertake. The term derives from the Latin: "to swear (an oath)"....

3 Starter Questions Is software development a profession like CPA, doctor, lawyer, …? Should software engineers be licensed like CPAs, doctors, lawyers, and barbers?

4 State Licensing Licensing is a state activity required of those who provide certain types of services directly to the public, such as contractors, physicians, electricians, barbers, and child care providers. A professional engineer is an individual who has been granted by a governmental authority the right to use that title and to offer professional engineering services to the public.  Every state has an engineering licensing law, but the details vary from state to state.

5 "PE" = Professional Engineer 1.A four-year degree from a university program accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) 2.An eight-hour examination on the fundamentals of engineering (FE) usually taken in the senior year of college 3.Four years of acceptable experience 4.A second examination on principles and practice 5.Written recommendations from other PEs Some states also mandate continuing education.

6 Who are PEs? 2014 U.S.A. - 822,575 South Carolina - 10,097

7 The ACM on Licensing Not Practical  The Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) examination, required for licensing as a PE, is inappropriate for those receiving computer science degrees.  Not all practicing software engineers graduate from departments that are eligible for ABET accreditation.  Large software development efforts often span multiple states, and resulting software might be sold in every state.  The time required to update the examinations does not match the rapid rate of technology change in computer science.  It is unlikely that any reasonable test for software engineering skill in safety critical systems could be put into a multiple-choice format.  The breadth of people involved in the production of software would make licensing of them impractical and not particularly helpful.

8 Codes of Ethics Most professions have a Code of Ethics  Doctors, Lawyers, Certified Public Accountants, Librarians, … Code of Ethics  assists in deciding right and wrong  aspirational Code of Conduct  employee rules  enforcement

9 ACM Code of Ethics 1. GENERAL MORAL IMPERATIVES. 1.1 Contribute to society and human well-being. 1.2 Avoid harm to others. 1.3 Be honest and trustworthy. 1.4 Be fair and take action not to discriminate. 1.5 Honor property rights including copyrights and patent. 1.6 Give proper credit for intellectual property. 1.7 Respect the privacy of others. 1.8 Honor confidentiality. boyscout-ish privacy property rights

10 2.MORE SPECIFIC PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES. 2.1Strive to achieve the highest quality, effectiveness and dignity in both the process and products of professional work. 2.2Acquire and maintain professional competence. 2.3Know and respect existing laws pertaining to professional work. 2.4Accept and provide appropriate professional review. 2.5Give comprehensive and thorough evaluations of computer systems and their impacts, including analysis of possible risks. 2.6Honor contracts, agreements, and assigned responsibilities. 2.7Improve public understanding of computing and its consequences. 2.8Access computing and communication resources only when authorized to do so.

11 3. ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP IMPERATIVES. 3.1Articulate social responsibilities of members of an organizational unit and encourage full acceptance of those responsibilities. 3.2 Manage personnel and resources to design and build information systems that enhance the quality of working life. 3.3 Acknowledge and support proper and authorized uses of an organization's computing and communication resources. 3.4 Ensure that users and those who will be affected by a system have their needs clearly articulated during the assessment and design of requirements; later the system must be validated to meet requirements. 3.5 Articulate and support policies that protect the dignity of users and others affected by a computing system. 3.6 Create opportunities for members of the organization to learn the principles and limitations of computer systems. 4. COMPLIANCE WITH THE CODE. 4.1 Uphold and promote the principles of this Code. 4.2 Treat violations of this code as inconsistent with membership in the ACM.

12 IEEE-CS/ACM Software Engineering Code of Ethics 1. Public 2. Client and Employer 3. Product 4. Judgement 5. Management 6. Profession 7. Colleagues 8. Self

13 Next Classes… 4/9 -- Global Issues 4/14 - 4/21 -- Research Presentations

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