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2 . Internetworking devices is a widely used term for any hardware within a networks that connect different network resources. when two or more separate networks are connected together to share data or resources,it becomes an internetwork or internet. connecting separate networks into internet requires internetworking devices


4 Hub is a networking device. It is also a broadcasting device. Hub operates at physical layer of OSI Model. It is just a connector and connects the wires coming from different sides.

5 In a star topology Ethernet LAN,a passive hub is just a point where signals coming from different stations collide. Therefore,Passive hub is a the collision point. Such a hub is part of the transmission media. Hub connect computers together in the star network topology. If a network is connected using Hub then it increases the chance of collisions.

6 Switch is a networking device. Switch operates at Data Link Layer of OSI Model. Switch is a device used to connect network devices together. A switch acts as a central connection point for cables from network devices. Unlike,hub a switch does not broadcast the message to all the ports, instead it forwards to the intended port. So it is faster than hub.


8 HUB SWITCH 1). HUB is a broadcasting device. 1). SWITCH is a point to point communication device. 2).HUB operates at physical layer of OSI Model. 2).SWITCH operates at Data link layer of OSI model. 3).It is not an intelligent device, so it is cheap. 3).SWITCH is an intelligent device,so it is an expensive. 4).HUB cannot act as REPEATER(that is generates the original bit pattern). 4).SWITCH can be used as REPEATER to regenerate the original bit pattern. 5).HUB simply broadcast the incoming packet. 5).SWITCH uses switching table to find out the current destination.

9 Gateway are the internetworking devices. It operates at the seven layer of OSI model. A gateway act as the protocol converter. It is used to connect to different types of networks,that uses different protocol. Gateway can perform all functions of Bridges and routers.


11 A bridge is a networking device. It operates both at the physical and data link layer of OSI Model. Bridge can be used to divide a large network into smaller segment. As a physical layer device,a bridge regenerate the signal. As a data link layer device,a bridge can access

12 Physical or MAC (Medium access control)address of the stations attached to it. It can check the destination address of the frame. A bridge can maintain table of MAC address of various stations.


14 There are two types of bridges: 1) Transparent Bridges. 2)Source Routing Bridges. A Transparent Bridge is invisible to the network ; the stations in the network are completely are unaware of bridges existence.

15 In transparent bridge route is decided by the bridges. The transparent bridge architecture is defined in IEEE 802.1d. Source routing bridge were designed by IEEE. In this route is decided by the end station. Bridges are not transparent to end station. The source can select an optimum path from a choice of route.

16 A repeater is also known as regenerator. It is an electronic device that operates only Physical layer of the OSI Model. Signal can carry the information within a network only for a fixed distance. After this distance attenuation occur,and the signal becomes weak and corrupted.


18 The purpose of repeater is to take this signal (before it becomes to weak or corrupted)and regenerate the original bit pattern. Repeater does not understand the frame format and also Physical address.

19 SR No BRIDGE REPEATER 1)Bridge is the hardware device that operates at both physical and data link layer of OSI Model. Repeater is the hardware device that operates at physical layer. 2)Bridge use MAC address of the stations to deliver packets to destination Repeater can not understand the physical address or MAC address Of station. 3)The Bridge can understand the frame format. Repeater can not understand the frame format. 4)Bridge perform packet filtering.Repeater does not perform packet filtering.

20 Network interface card is a hardware card installed in a computer, so it can communicate on network. The network adapter provides one or more ports for the network cable to connect and transmit and receive data onto the cable.


22 Routers are multi port devices. They operate at physical,data link,network layer of OSI Model. A router may connect LAN and WAN in the internet. A router has access to the network layer address or logical address(IP address).


24 It contains a routing table that enable it to make decisions about the route. These routing tables are dynamic are updated Using routing protocols. Routers act like station on a network. The router are usually member of more than one network at the same time.

25 SR No. ROUTER BRIDGE 1)Router is a hardware device that operate at physical,network and data link layer. Bridge is a hardware device that at data link layer and physical layer of OSI Model. 2)Router interconnects two or more network s and route packet between them. Bridge is used to divide large network into smaller segments. 3)ExpensiveInexpensive 4)Difficult to setup and configure. Easy to configure.

26 A wireless network adapter card with a transceiver called and broadcast and receive signal to and from the surrounding computers and passes back. Access point act as wireless hub to link multiple wireless NIC into a single subnet. Access point also have at least one fixed Ethernet port to allow the wireless network to be bridge to a traditional wireless Ethernet network.


28 The term “Modem” is derived from the words Modulator and Demodulator. Modulator converts a digital signal into an analog and demodulator converts an analog into a digital. The modem at transmitting end converts the digital signal generated by DTE (data terminal Equipment).

29 Digital signal Analog signal Digital signal Telephon e lines Modulation/demodulation A B

30 Multiplexing is done by using a device called multiplexer. That combines n input lines to generate one output line i.e.(many to one). Therefore,multiplexer has several input lines and one output.

31 At the receiving end, a device called de- multiplexer (DEMUX) is used that signal into its component lines. It is a reverse of the MUX. So, DEMUX has one input and several outputs

32 N inputsOne output One inputN inputs Single communication channel Carrying 4 different transmission


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