2 Early History of Computing AbacusAn early device to record numeric valuesBlaise PascalMechanical device to add, subtract, divide & multiplyJoseph JacquardJacquard’s Loom, the punched cardCharles BabbageAnalytical Engine6
3 Early History of Computing AbacusAn early device to record numeric valuesWe normally do not call it a computer, but a computing device.It is still used in parts of the world today.This distinction between a computer and a computing device will become clearer as we look at other aspects of the history of computing.source:6
4 Napier’s Bones (or Rods) Rods were marked with multiplication table results.These were used to provide fairly simple means of multiplying large numbers.The honor for constructing the first calculating machine belongs to a German called Wilhelm Schickard .In 1623 he completed a mechanical calculating machine based on Napier's work.
5 Using the bones to compute 46732 X 5 Add:10150350030000200000
6 Blaise PascalIn 1642 Blaise Pascal, a Frenchman invented a new kind of computing device.It used wheels instead of beads. Each wheel had ten notches, numbered '0' to '9'. When a wheel was turned seven notches, it added 7 to the total on the machine.Pascal's machine, known as the Pascaline, could add up toIt could also subtract.
7 Gottfried LeibnitzLeibnitz improved on Pascal's adding machine so that it could also perform multiplication, division and calculate square roots.
8 Joseph JacquardIn the late 1700s in France, Joseph Jacquard invented a way to control the pattern on a weaving loom used to make fabric.Jacquard punched pattern holes into paper cards.The cards told the loom what to do.Instead of a person making every change in a pattern, the machine made the changes all by itself.Jacquard's machine didn't count anything. So it wasn't a computer or even a computing device. His ideas, however, led to many other computing inventions later.
9 Jacquard Loom - A mechanical device that influenced early computer design Intricate textile patterns were prized in France in early 1800s.Jacquard’s loom (1805-6) used punched cards to allow only some rods to bring the thread into the loom on each shuttle pass.
10 LudditesDuring the 1700's and early 1800's, part of the world saw the development of industrialization.Before the Industrial Revolution, manufacturing was done by hand or simple machines.The Industrial Revolution caused many people to lose their jobs.Groups of people known as Luddites attacked factories and wrecked machinery in Britain between 1811 and 1816.The Luddites received their name from their mythical leader Ned Ludd.They believed that the introduction of new textile machines in the early 1800's had caused unemployment and lowered the textile workers' standard of living.Note this is similar to the way some people see that computers today are taking the jobs of workers.
11 Charles Babbage In the Science Museum, London Babbage is known as the father of modern computing because he was the first person to design a general purpose computing device.In 1822, Babbage began to design and build a small working model of an automatic mechanical calculating machine, which he called a "difference engine".Example: It could find the first 30 prime numbers in two and a half minutes.In the Science Museum, London
13 Babbage continued work to produce a full scale working Difference Engine for 10 years, but in 1833 he lost interest because he had a "better idea"--the construction of what today would be described as a general-purpose, fully program-controlled, automatic mechanical digital computer.Babbage called his machine an "analytical engine".He designed, but was unable to build, this Analytical Engine (1856) which had many of the characteristics of today’s computers:an input device – punched card readeran output device – a typewritermemory – rods which when rotated into position “stored” a numbercontrol unit – punched cards with instructions encoded as with the Jacquard loom
14 Some call Babbage’s analytic engine the first computer, but, as it was not built by him, most people place that honor elsewhere.Babbage's analytical engine contained all the basic elements of an automatic computer--storage, working memory, a system for moving between the two, an input device and an output device.But Babbage lacked funding to build the machine so Babbage's computer was never completed.
15 Babbage designed a printer, also, that has just been built at the Science Museum in London- 4,000 working parts!source:
16 Ada Lovelace Ada Byron Lovelace was a close friend of Babbage. Ada thought so much of Babbage's analytical engine that she translated a previous work about the engine.Because of the detailed explanations she added to the work, she has been called the inventor of computer programming.Today, on behalf of her work in computing, a programming language, Ada, is named after her.7
17 First Generation Hardware (1951-1959) Vacuum TubesLarge, not very reliable, generated a lot of heatMagnetic DrumMemory device that rotated under a read/write headCard Readers Magnetic Tape DrivesSequential auxiliary storage devices8
18 Vacuum Tubes First Generation Electronic Computers used Vacuum Tubes Vacuum tubes are glass tubes with circuits inside.Vacuum tubes have no air inside of them, which protects the circuitry.
19 Second Generation Hardware (1959-1965) TransistorReplaced vacuum tube, fast, small, durable, cheapMagnetic CoresReplaced magnetic drums, information available instantlyMagnetic DisksReplaced magnetic tape, data can be accessed directly9
20 First Transistor Uses Silicon developed in 1948 won a Nobel prize on-off switchSecond Generation Computers used Transistors, starting in 1956
21 Third Generation Hardware (1965-1971) Integrated CircuitsReplaced circuit boards, smaller, cheaper, faster, more reliableTransistorsNow used for memory constructionTerminalAn input/output device with a keyboard and screen10
22 Integrated CircuitsThird Generation Computers used Integrated Circuits (chips).Integrated Circuits are transistors, resistors, and capacitors integrated together into a single “chip”
23 Fourth Generation Hardware (1971-?) Large-scale IntegrationGreat advances in chip technologyPCs, the Commercial Market, WorkstationsPersonal Computers and Workstations emergeNew companies emerge: Apple, Sun, Dell …LaptopsEveryone has his/her own portable computer11
24 What is a Microchip? Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit (VLSIC) Transistors, resistors, and capacitors4004 had 2,250 transistorsPentium IV has 42 MILLION transistorsEach transistor 0.13 microns (10-6 meters)
25 4th Generation – 1971-present MICROCHIPS!Getting smaller and smaller, but we are still using microchip technology
27 Evolution of Electronics Microchip (VLSIC)Integrated CircuitTransistorVacuum Tube
28 Parallel Computing and Networking Computers rely on interconnected central processing and/or memory units that increase processing speedNetworkingEthernet connects small computers to share resourcesFile servers connect PCs in the late 1980sARPANET and LANs Internet12
29 First Generation Software (1951-1959) Machine LanguageComputer programs written in binary (1s and 0s)Assembly Languages and TranslatorsPrograms written using mnemonics, which were translated into machine languageProgrammer ChangesProgrammers divide into two groups: application programmers and systems programmers13
30 Assembly/Machine Systems programmers Applications programmers write the assembler(translator)Applications programmersuse assembly language tosolve problems
31 Second Generation Software (1959-1965) High-level LanguagesEnglish-like statements made programming easier:Fortran, COBOL, LispSystemsprogrammerswrite translators forhigh-level languagesApplicationuse high-levellanguages tosolve problems14
32 Third Generation Software (1965-1971) Systems SoftwareUtility programsLanguage translatorsOperating system, which decides which programs to run and whenSeparation between Users and HardwareComputer programmers write programs to be used by general public (i.e., nonprogrammers)15
35 Fifth Generation Software (1990- present) MicrosoftWindows operating system and other Microsoft application programs dominate the marketObject-Oriented DesignBased on a hierarchy of data objects (i.e. Java)World Wide WebAllows easy global communication through the InternetNew UsersToday’s user needs no computer knowledge18