Presentation on theme: "Strategies provided by: Robert J. Marzano Debra J. Pickering"— Presentation transcript:
1 Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement Strategies provided by:Robert J. MarzanoDebra J. PickeringJane E. Pollock
2 Strategy #1: Identifying Similarities and Differences “Presenting students with explicit guidance in identifying similarities and differences enhances students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge.”“Asking students to independently identify similarities and differences enhances students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge.”“Representing similarities and differences in graphic or symbolic form enhances students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge.”“Identification of similarities and differences can be accomplished in a variety of ways. The identification of similarities and differences is a highly robust activity.”Retrieved from Classroom Instruction That Works
3 How will you incorporate these strategies in your classroom? Examples of Similarities and DifferencesComparingClassifyingCreating MetaphorsCreating AnalogiesHow will you incorporate these strategies in your classroom?
4 Strategy #2: Summarizing and Note-taking “Verbatim note taking is, perhaps, the least effective way to take notes.”“Notes should be considered a work in progress.”“Notes should be used as study guides for tests.”“The more notes that are taken, the better.”Example: Cornell Notes provide students with a template for note-taking and summarizing.Will Cornell Notes work in your content area?Retrieved from Classroom Instruction That Works
5 Strategy #3: Reinforcing Effort & Providing Recognition “Rewards do not necessarily have a negative effect on intrinsic motivation.”“Reward is most effective when it is contingent on the attainment of some standard of performance.”“Abstract symbolic recognition is more effective than tangible rewards.”Examples: Specific Praise, Stickers, Stamps, PBS Rewards for applying the 4R’s (Ready, Respect, Responsible, and Righteous) in the classroomHow will you reward students for effort and academic achievement?Retrieved from Classroom Instruction That Works
6 Strategy #4: Homework and Practice “Parent involvement in homework should be kept to a minimum.”“The purpose of homework should be identified and articulated.”Homework Purposes: Practice and Preparation“When homework is assigned for the purpose of practice, it should be structured around the content with which students have a high degree of familiarity.”“If homework is assigned, it should be commented on.”What does homework look like in your class? Are using the strategy effectively?Retrieved from Classroom Instruction That Works
7 Strategy #5: Nonlinguistic Representations “A variety of activities produce non-linguistic representations.”“Nonlinguistic representations should elaborate on knowledge.”Examples: Creating graphic representations, Making physical models, Generating mental pictures, Engaging in kinesthetic activitiesGraphic Organizers include: Descriptive Patterns, Time-Sequence Patterns, Process/Cause-Effect Patterns, Episode Patterns, Generalization/Principle Patterns, Concept PatternsHow will you apply nonlinguistic representations in your content area?Retrieved from Classroom Instruction That Works
8 Strategy #6: Cooperative Learning Five defining elements of cooperative learning: Positive interdependence, Face-to-face promotive interaction, Individual and group accountability, Interpersonal and small group skills, Group processing“Organizing groups based on ability levels should be done sparingly.”“Cooperative groups should be kept rather small in size.”“Cooperative learning should be applied consistently and systematically, but not overused.”“Of all classroom grouping strategies, cooperative learning may be the most flexible and powerful… teachers can use cooperative learning in a variety of ways in many different situations.”How will you incorporate this strategy in your content area?Retrieved from Classroom Instruction That Works
9 Strategy #7: Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback “Instructional goals narrow what students focus on.”“Instructional goals should not be too specific.”“Students should be encouraged to personalize the teacher’s goals.”“Feedback should be “corrective” in nature.”“Feedback should be timely.”“Feedback should be specific to a criterion.”“Students can effectively provide some of their own feedback.”How will you incorporate this strategy in your content area?Retrieved from Classroom Instruction That Works
10 Strategy #8: Generating and Testing Hypothesis “Hypothesis generation and testing can be approached in a more inductive or deductive manner.”“Teachers should ask students to clearly explain their hypothesis and their conclusions.”Examples of Structured Tasks to Guide Students: Systems Analysis, Problem Solving, Historical Investigation, Invention, Experimental Inquiry, Decision MakingHow will you incorporate this strategy in your content area?Retrieved from Classroom Instruction That Works
11 Strategy #9: Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers “Cues and questions should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual.”“ “Higher level” questions produce deeper learning than “lower level” questions.”“Waiting briefly before accepting responses from students has the effect of increasing the depth of students’ answers.”“Questions are effective learning tools even when asked before a learning experience.”“Advance organizers are most useful with information that is not well organized.”Different types of advance organizers produce different results.”How will you incorporate this strategy in your content area?Retrieved from Classroom Instruction That Works
12 ReferenceMarzano, R., Pickering, D., & Pollock, J. (2001). Classroom Instruction that Works: Research Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.