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Chapter 10: Cities and Urbanization Holly Barcus Morehead State University Introduction to Geography People, Places, and Environment, 6e Carl Dahlman.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10: Cities and Urbanization Holly Barcus Morehead State University Introduction to Geography People, Places, and Environment, 6e Carl Dahlman."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter 10: Cities and Urbanization Holly Barcus Morehead State University Introduction to Geography People, Places, and Environment, 6e Carl Dahlman William H. Renwick

3 2 Defining Concepts Hinterland –Provide services/draws resources Incorporation –Defining city territory Primate cities –Large city with majority of national population Urbanization –Concentrating population in cities

4 3 Urban Geography Three important topics –Urban functions and roles –Study of urbanization Different times Different places –Internal patterns

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7 6 Urban Functions Early functions –Government centers –Protection –Agglomeration Economy sectors –Primary –Secondary –Tertiary Economic bases –Basic sector –Non-basic sector –Multiplier effect

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10 9 Locations of Cities Site factors –Characteristics of location Situation factors –Other cities –Transportation/trade routes

11 10 Central Place Theory Three requirements –Hinterlands divide the space completely –Hinterlands are uniform shape and size –Minimal distance between central place and furthest place

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14 13 Early Urban Societies Holland - 17 th century –Global shipping, banking –Supported by highly productive agriculture –Pre-industrial revolution Britain –Occurred during industrialization –World’s first model of urbanization Terrible hardships Emigration

15 14 Urbanization Today Occurring rapidly –Inadequate infrastructure –Living conditions mimic 19 th century England –Caused by deteriorating rural conditions Concentrates labor forces Different from historic British experience

16 15 Government Policies Used to reduce rural to urban migration Limit housing and jobs Improve rural areas Compulsory ruralization

17 16 Vitality of Cities Positive aspects of urbanization –Informal, underground economy –Urban immigrants are assets to growth

18 17 Models of Urban Form Four models of internal patterns –Concentric zone –Sector –Multiple-nuclei –Peripheral Social factors Government Environmental concerns

19 Concentric Zone Model

20 CBD

21 Sector Model

22 Multiple Nuclei Model

23 Peripheral Model

24 23 Urban Planning Planning the ideal city –Howard’s Garden Cities –Le Corbusier’s Radiant Cities –Canberra, Australia Charter of the International Congress of Modern Architecture (CIAM) –Codified the functions of the modern city

25 Garden City

26 Rayburn, New Jersey

27 26 Brasilia, A Radiant City

28 27 Brasilia: National Cathedral

29 28 Brasilia, Congress

30 29 Brasilia Upper left: Residential sector Lower left: National theater Below: Government ministry buildings

31 30 Culture in Urban Models Contrasts to North American models –Latin America –Western Europe –Traditional Islamic –Asian

32 Fez, Morocco

33 Latin American Model

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36 35 Growth of Suburbs U.S. phenomenon due to prosperity Early suburbs –Cultural preference for rural living –Henry Ford Government policies –FHA loan program –Tax incentives –Returning veterans

37 36 Suburban Infrastructure Sprawl High costs –Energy –Commute / transportation Leapfrogging Environmental –Farmland –Green space

38 37 Social Consequences Residential segregation and marketing Restrictive covenants Job movement and creation Commuting patterns –Rush hour

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40 USA changes in city size

41 40 New Patterns New urbanism –Recreate small town America –Less dependence on cars Telecommuting Virtual shopping –Internet –Brick and mortar

42 41 Central Cities Decline 1970-1995 Economic decline –Spatial mismatch Population loss Deteriorating housing and neighborhoods Loss of entry level jobs

43 42 Central Cities New Growth Service sector economy –Increased white collar jobs –Finance, IT, bio-tech Gentrification –Rediscovering urban living –Yuppies / empty nesters Immigrants African Americans

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45 44 Redistribution of Jobs & Housing Urban enterprise zones Reclaiming “brownfields” Relocate subsidized housing Transportation to suburban jobs

46 45 Governing Urban Areas Annexation Incorporation –Thwarts efforts to be annexed Special district governments Ending subsidies encouraging sprawl Tax incentives End of Chapter 10


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