# Course Sequence and Options for TUSD Middle Schools.

## Presentation on theme: "Course Sequence and Options for TUSD Middle Schools."— Presentation transcript:

Course Sequence and Options for TUSD Middle Schools

 Switch  Shifts in the Common Core  Recommendations for TUSD  Why take this path?  Addressing acceleration  Moving forward with next steps

 The implementation of the Common Core State Standards in Math (CCSSM) requires rethinking not only course content, but also course sequencing.  The CCSSM are greatly accelerated, more rigorous, and contain more content than the 1997 Content Standards.

Places strong emphasis on the new grade-level and course-level standards (Shift in content) Focus Think across grades and link major topics in each grade Coherence Higher order thinking and application to real-world situations and problems Rigor

Algebraic concepts, geometric concepts, ratio, proportion, rates, percent, and statistics and probability within a spiral curriculum Focus Extending operations with fractions to rational numbers Coherence Foundational concepts of Algebra Expectations of fluency with expressions and linear equations Rigor

Mathematics that students need for success in college and careers Focus Extending from algebraic concepts to calculus, trigonometry, and advanced probability and statistics Coherence Expectation that students are college and career ready and able to utilize mathematics in their lives Rigor

Progression of Mathematics Courses K - 5 Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 6 – 8 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 Higher Math (9 – 12) Algebra I Geometry Algebra II Advanced Math AP Probability & Statistics Calculus TUSD Additional Offerings: Intermediate Algebra II Pre-Calculus AP Calculus AB AP Calculus BC Applied Calculus IB Math SL

Why take this path?

 Teacher representatives from all schools, grade levels, and math courses participated  Examined the CCSS standards and compared them to the 1997 standards  Found great differences in the CCSS, particularly in middle school grades  Differences were noted in an expanded curriculum, greater depth and complexity, significant content shifts, emphasis on literacy, and first instances of spiral curriculum for high school Geometry (6 th grade)

 1997 Algebra I – 2.0  Students understand and use such operations as taking the opposite, finding the reciprocal, taking a root, and raising to a fractional power. They understand and use the rules of exponents.  CCSS Algebra I - N-RN.1  Explain how the definition of the meaning of rational exponents follows from extending the properties of integer exponents to those values, allowing for a notation for radicals in terms of rational exponents. For example, we define 5 1/3 to be the cube root of 5 because we want (5 1/3 ) 3 = 5 (1/3)3 to hold, so (5 1/3 ) 3 must equal 5.

New CCSS Standard Algebra I – IF-F.4 For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity. Corresponding 1997 Standard Trigonometry - 2.0 Students know the definition of sine and cosine as y- and x -coordinates of points on the unit circle and are familiar with the graphs of the sine and cosine functions. Calculus - 9.0 Students use differentiation to sketch, by hand, graphs of functions. They can identify maxima, minima, inflection points, and intervals in which the function is increasing and decreasing.

 The Grade 8 CCSS Math contain a large number of accelerated 1997 Content Standards:  Algebra I (26)  Geometry (11)  Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability (5) moved from Grade 7 Math  Plus 6 Completely New Math Standards

 The CCSS for Algebra I contain a large number of accelerated 1997 Content Standards:  Algebra II (15)  AP Probability and Statistics (6)  Probability and Statistics (5)  Pre-Calculus (1)  Calculus (2)  Trigonometry (3)  Algebra I (60)  Plus 19 Completely New Algebra I Standards

 Increase the number of students taking four years of high school mathematics.  Maintain or increase the number of students taking Advanced Placement and other advanced high school mathematics courses.

Any acceleration should take into consideration a commitment of four years of high school mathematics. Successful transitions beyond high school, without the need for remediation, are in part dependent on students’ consistent math enrollment throughout high school. (WestEd, 2013) Irrespective of students’ math performance, taking four years of high-school math strengthens their postsecondary and employment opportunities in STEM-related fields. (WestEd, 2013)

42% of TUSD’s 2013-14 students in Grade 12 are currently enrolled in an advanced math course in their 4 th year of high school math. (AP Calculus AB/BC, IB Math SL, Applied Calculus, AP Statistics, Pre-Calculus) 57% of TUSD’s 2013-14 students in Grade 12 are currently enrolled in their 4 th year of high school math.

Senior Year Junior Year Sophomore Year Freshmen Year 8 th Grade Year 8 th Grade Year 7 th Grade Year 6 th Grade Year 5 th Grade Year 5 th Grade Year Math 5* Math 6A* Math 6 Math 7A* Math 7 Math 8 Geometry Algebra 1 Algebra 1* * Signifies a course with an end of year mastery exam. Geometry Algebra 2 Pre-Calc AP Calc BC Algebra 2 Pre-Calc AP Calc AB AP Statistics IB Math SL Finite Math Applied Calculus Accelerated Path Traditional Path Two Pathways – Four Years of High School Math Honors Option Courses

1 Advancing students through the sequence requires compacted courses without omitting content. 2 Skipping standards is not recommended, as students will miss foundational skills. 3 The creation of compacted courses must include all standards (i.e. covering and mastering content for more than one grade level in one school year).

 42-minute class periods in middle school equate to one lost class period per week as compared to high school length periods.  More content needs to be covered in these 42 minutes.  Acceleration may require a two-period math structure to accommodate the sheer amount of content involved with compacting 1.5 years of content into one school year. Although accelerated Grade 8 students may take Algebra I, at this time Grade 8 students will take the Grade 8 Mathematics Smarter Balanced Assessment.

Decisions to accelerate students, especially in middle school, should be carefully considered. Solid evidence of mastery of prerequisite standards should be required; diagnostic testing can help identify strengths and challenges in particular areas of math content (WestEd, 2013).