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Informative and persuasive. Types of Speeches Informative Persuasive Informative SpeechesPersuasive Speech To increase knowledge. Can be presented with.

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Presentation on theme: "Informative and persuasive. Types of Speeches Informative Persuasive Informative SpeechesPersuasive Speech To increase knowledge. Can be presented with."— Presentation transcript:

1 Informative and persuasive

2 Types of Speeches Informative Persuasive Informative SpeechesPersuasive Speech To increase knowledge. Can be presented with or without persuasion. To change attitudes and behaviour. Has to be presented with information, in order to persuade.

3 3 Informative speeches

4 4 Distinctions between Informative and Persuasive Speaking An informative speech is meant to increase knowledge. A persuasive speech is meant to alter attitudes and behavior. A speech can inform without persuading. A speech cannot persuade without informing.

5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 20085 Topics for Informative Speeches Choose topics that: Allow you to convey an important thought or action. Are familiar and interesting to you. Are important to you. Your audience will find interesting. You can develop within the time limit.

6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 20086 Categories of Informative Topics Objects Processes Events Concepts

7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 20087 Preparing and Developing an Informative Speech Gain and maintain audience attention. Increase understanding of the topic. Apply basic guidelines for effective informative speaking.

8 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 20088 How do you gain and maintain audience attention? Generate a need for the information Create information relevance Provide a fresh perspective Focus on the unusual

9 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 20089 How do you increase understanding of the topic? Organize your presentation Plan for repetition Use advance organizers

10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 200810 How do you increase understanding of the topic? Choose language carefully Use concrete words Use description Use definitions Show contrasts Use synonyms Use antonyms Use etymologies

11 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 200811 Hints for effective informative speaking are... Avoid assumptions Analyze your audience Adapt to their level of knowledge Personalize information Relate your topic to your listeners Show that it has relevance for them

12 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 200812 How do you evaluate an informative speech? Topic General requirements Audience analysis Supporting materials Organization Delivery Language choice

13 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 200813 Who evaluates the speech? Instructor Self Yes, you engage in self-evaluation. Listeners

14 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 200814 Informative Speech Topics Graphic design Road rage Anger management Identity fraud Muslim terrorism Christian terrorism Caffeine and you Baseball’s cork bats PETA and your pets Save your hearing! Laser technology Global warming

15 15

16 Persuasive Speeches Persuasion is a communication process, involving verbal and non-verbal messages, that attempts to reinforce or change listeners’ attitudes, beliefs, values or behaviors( Seiler and Beal, 2008 page 320). The effect of persuasion occurs over time, that is not immediately. The effect of persuasion can be manifested in adoption, continuance, discontinuance or deterrence of actions.

17 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200817 “Persuasion is a communication process... that attempts to reinforce or change listeners’ attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior.” -- Seiler and Beall What is the difference between persuasion, influence, and coercion? Is there a difference?

18 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2008 18 What makes him/her so persuasive?

19 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200819 What are the goals of persuasive speaking? Adoption Discontinuance Deterrence Continuance

20 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200820 Topics for Persuasive Speeches Should be interesting Should be worthwhile Must have a goal of influence or action Should be current

21 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200821 Persuasive Topics Ask... Questions of Fact Questions of Value Questions of Policy Any combination of these three

22 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200822 Support a persuasive position with claim, data, and warrant. Claim - the fact, value, or policy the speaker wants listeners to accept. Data - evidence that should influence listeners. Warrant - explanation of relationship between claim and data.

23 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200823 What are the key elements for supporting evidence? (Toulmin model) DataClaim Warrant Frazia has violated 50 of 52 cease-fire agreements Frazia would violate any future proposed cease-fire treaty Past violations are symptomatic of probable future violations

24 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200824 Establishing Credibility Competence Demonstrate involvement Relate experience Cite research Character Trustworthiness Ethics Charisma

25 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200825 Becoming Effective Consumers of Persuasion Ask the right questions. How knowledgeable is the speaker? What sources has the speaker used? Are sources reliable? Is evidence worthwhile? Can I believe the argument? Where can I get additional information?

26 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200826

27 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200827 Preparing and Developing a Persuasive Speech Research the topic (review chapter 8) Organize the speech (review chapter 9) Use supporting material Use persuasive strategies

28 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200828 Supporting Material Appeals to needs Logical appeals Deductive reasoning Inductive reasoning Causal reasoning Reasoning by analogy Emotional appeals

29 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200829 Supporting Material Appeals to needs physical needs safety needs social needs self-esteem needs

30 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200830 Supporting Material Logical appeals Deductive reasoning: from general information to a specific conclusion General premise: Heart disease is a major health concern in the Midwest Minor premise: Nebraska is part of the Midwest Conclusion: Therefore, heart disease is a major health concern in Nebraska!

31 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200831 Supporting Material Logical appeals Inductive reasoning: moving from specific information to general conclusions Facts: My speech teacher is an excellent teacher My speech teacher last semester was also excellent My friend’s speech teacher is also excellent Conclusion: Speech teachers at the University of Nebraska are excellent teachers

32 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200832 Supporting Material Logical appeals Causal reasoning: sequence of thought that links causes with effects The earth’s temperature is turning colder because the ozone layer is thinning Adequate support would be required to support this claim is persuasion is desired

33 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200833 Supporting Material Logical appeals Reasoning by analogy: compares similar things or circumstances in order to draw a conclusion General premise: American auto production must improve Minor premise: The Japanese method of auto production has been extremely successful Conclusion: American auto manufacturers should adopt the Japanese method if they want to be successful

34 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200834 Supporting Material Emotional appeals Fear, happiness Can sway people to do things that might not be logical Ethics demands that we use emotions with care Speaker should be careful, fair, truthful

35 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200835 Fallacies in Argument Development Fallacies of reason Questionable cause Ad hominem Fallacies of evidence Fact vs. opinion Red herring Hasty generalization

36 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200836 Making Effective Persuasive Speeches Set a realistic persuasive goal. Conduct a thorough audience analysis. Identify a need for the audience. Provide a solution that matches the audience’s beliefs, attitudes, and values. Give your audience a practical solution. Point out the advantages.

37 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200837 Making Effective Persuasive Speeches Point out the negatives in other solutions and why your solution is best. Use only valid and reliable evidence. Be ethical and fair. Practice and become familiar with the content. Deliver the speech with enthusiasm, sincerity, and confidence.

38 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200838 Evaluating the Persuasive Speech Topic General requirements Audience analysis Supporting materials Organization Delivery Language choice

39 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200839 Delivery Be enthusiastic, confident, and poised Convey a persuasive attitude Convey the topic’s relevance Enhance and clarify with nonverbals - gestures, eye contact, facial expression Enhance with vocal delivery: vocal variety, rate, appropriate pauses, pitch, volume to match impact of your points Read the audience and adjust accordingly

40 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200840 Tips for Persuasive Speakers Establish yourself as an ethical communicator. Use repetition and restatement. Use appropriate organizational patterns. Select appropriate supporting materials. Use sound reasoning.

41 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200841 Persuasive Speech Topics Increasing Funding for Stem Cell Research Requiring Internships without Pay Dangers on the Internet Control Road Rage Racial Profiling is Wrong Baseball Must Control Steroid Use Global Warming and the Environment

42 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200842 Provide information AND affect listeners’ attitudes, beliefs, values, or behaviors.

43 Reference Seiler, W. J and Beall, M. L ( 2008). Communication. Making Connections ( 7 th ed). Boston: Pearson Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 200843

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