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Fundamentals of Graphic Design

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Presentation on theme: "Fundamentals of Graphic Design"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fundamentals of Graphic Design
Elements and Principles of Design

2 Communication The purpose of graphic design is communication. As you go through each stage of your design process, ask yourself how you are using each of these elements of design to enhance the delivery of the message, affect the mood of the piece and relate the product or message to the target audience. Remember that these elements apply to everything in the layout, from composition, to photos, to typography What is the difference between Fine Arts and Graphic Arts?

3 Fine Art: Communicates the artist’s personal vision which may or may not be obvious to the viewer. Artist Jackson Pollock working on a painting.

4 Graphic Arts: Communicates a message directly and clearly for a client to a target audience. Store sale sign

5 Elements of Design Line Shape Texture Space Color Value

6 Line Line is any mark connecting two points. Many different types of lines appear everywhere. Look around you and you'll see lines that are straight, curved, squiggly, thin, fat, and dotted.

7 Shape Anything that has height and width has shape. Unusual shapes can be used to attract attention. There are basically three types of shapes. Geometric shapes, such as triangles, squares, rectangles, and circles, are regular and structured. These shapes work very well as building blocks for graphic design. Natural shapes, such as animals, plants, and humans, are irregular and fluid. Abstracted shapes, such as icons, stylized figures, and graphic illustrations, are simplified versions of natural shapes.

8 Texture Texture is the look or feel of a surface. You can add richness and dimension to your layouts with texture. Visual texture creates an illusion of texture on a printed publication or web page. Patterns, such as the images printed on wrapping paper, are a type of visual texture. Tactile texture can actually be felt. Printed publications can be printed on textured paper that readers can feel.

9 Space Space is the distance or area between or around things. Space separates or unifies, highlights, and gives the eye a visual rest.

10 Color Color in layouts can convey moods, create images, attract attention, and identify objects. When selecting colors for a publication or a web page, think about what you want the color to do and what is appropriate for your purpose.

11 Value Value is the lightness or darkness of an area. Think in terms of the spectrum from black to white and the many shades of gray in between. Each shade on this spectrum has a value, from the very lightest to the very darkest. Value separates, suggests mood, adds drama, and creates the illusion of depth.

12 Principles of Design Balance Pattern Repetition Movement Proportion
Emphasis Unity Contrast The principles of design help to determine how to use the design elements. These principles of design help you to combine the various design elements into a good layout.

13 Balance Balance is an equal distribution of weight. In terms of graphics, this applies to visual weight. Each element on a layout has visual weight that is determined by its size, darkness or lightness, and thickness of lines.

14 Balance There are two basic approaches to balance. The first is symmetrical balance which is an arrangement of elements so that they are evenly distributed to the left and to the right of center. The second is asymmetrical balance which is an arrangement of unlike objects of equal weight on each side of the page.


16 Balance Symmetrical Asymmetrical
Symmetrical balance can communicate strength and stability and is appropriate for traditional and conservative publications, presentations, and web sites. Asymmetrical balance can imply contrast, variety, movement, surprise, and informality. It is appropriate for modern and entertaining publications, presentations, and web sites.


18 Balance Symmetrical Asymmetrical

19 Pattern created by repeating elements that are varied

20 Repetition repeating similar elements in a consistent manner

21 Movement Rhythm refers to the way your eye moves throughout a picture. Some pictures move you throughout in a connected, flowing way much like a slow, stately rhythm in music. Other pictures move you from one place to another in an abrupt, dynamic way much like a fast, staccato rhythm in music will give you the impression of movement.

22 Proportion When the principle of proportion is applied to a work of art it is usually in the relationship of size. That is, the size of one element of the composition as compared to the size of another related element.

23 Emphasis Emphasis is what stands out or gets noticed first. Every layout needs a focal point to draw the readers eye to the important part of the layout. Too many focal points defeat the purpose. Generally, a focal point is created when one element is different from the rest.

24 Unity Unity helps all the elements look like they belong together. Readers need visual cues to let them know the piece is one unit-the text, headline, photographs, graphic images, and captions all go together.

25 Contrast Contrast occurs when two elements are different. The greater the difference the greater the contrast. The key to working with contrast is to make sure the differences are obvious. Four common methods of creating contrast are by using differences in size, value, color, and type.

26 Components of a work of Graphic Art
Grid layouts Color Space Text Illustration Photographs Logos

27 Grid Layout A grid is a technique that comes from print design but easily be applied to web design as well. In its strictest form a grid is literally a grid of X by Y pixels. The elements on the page are then placed on the cell border lines and overall aligned on horizontal and vertical lines.

28 Color Color is the perceptual characteristic of light described by a color name. Specifically, color is light, and light is composed of many colors—those we see are the colors of the visual spectrum: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet. Objects absorb certain wavelengths and reflect others back to the viewer. We perceive these wavelengths as color. A color is described in three ways: by its name, how pure or desaturated it is, and its value or lightness. Although pink, crimson, and brick are all variations of the color red, each hue is distinct and differentiated by its chroma, saturation, intensity, and value.

29 Space Space on a webpage is often known as white space. Space is of greater importance in communicating the clear message. Many business sites fail to attract the attention of viewers because they lack this fundamental. There must be space among all elements on a page to differentiate them from each other. Empty space implies importance, elegance, professionalism and clarity.

30 Text Text layout is an important aspect of graphic design, and Web sites should be as easy to read as possible. The choice of typeface is also significant

31 Illustration

32 Photographs

33 Logos A logo is a graphic mark or emblem commonly used by commercial enterprises, organizations and even individuals to aid and promote instant public recognition. Logos are either purely graphic (symbols/icons) or are composed of the name of the organization

34 The Questions Every piece of Graphic Art starts with a few Questions:
What are you attempting to communicate? Who is your intended audience? What media will you use to deliver the message?

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