Presentation on theme: "Defining Rigor through Research and the Common Core Standards"— Presentation transcript:
1 Defining Rigor through Research and the Common Core Standards Text ComplexityDefining Rigor through Research and the Common Core StandardsAudience should have had a general overview of the ELA standards.
2 Partner ShareTake a moment to reflect on what you heard yesterday about the Common Core Standards.Yesterday heard about the organization and structure of the CCSS and vertical articulation. One of the things that we considered yesterday were the six shifts. Today we are going to take a deep dive into one of these shifts, text complexity. But before we move on, let’s take a moment to reflect on some of your key learning from yesterday.
3 Outcomes Define text complexity and describe why it matters Practice reading complex text and using text-based evidence in discussionIdentify implications for our work as school and district leadersBy the time you leave today, you will know and be able toDefine text complexity and describe why it mattersPractice reading complex text and using text-based evidence in discussionEvaluate text complexity of a non-fiction passageIdentify implications for our work as school and district leaders
4 Text Complexity What are some key words you notice in this standard? Specifically, within reading standard #10:Anchor Standard:R.CCR.10 Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.Progression of the Reading Standard Appendix A, page 10What are some key words you notice in this standard?Note on range and content of student readingAnchor standard 10 specifically calls out text complexity for both literary and informational text. To build a foundation for college and career readiness, students must read widely and deeply from among a broad range of high-quality, increasingly challenging literary and informational texts. Through extensive reading of stories, dramas, poems, and myths from diverse cultures and different time periods, students gain literary and cultural knowledge as well as familiarity with various text structures and elements. By reading texts in history/social studies, science, and other disciplines, students build a foundation of knowledge in these fields that will also give them the background to be better readers in all content areas. Students can only gain this foundation when the curriculum is intentionally and coherently structured to develop rich content knowledge within and across grades. Students also acquire the habits of reading independently and closely, which are essential to their future success. We are not just talking about comprehension, we are specifically calling out complex text.Take a moment to notice how text complexity is articulated on page 10 of Appendix A. What are some key words you notice in this standard?
5 Protocol – part 1 Read Appendix A, pages 2, 3 and top half of 4 Identify a passage that you feel has implications for your workIdentify a back up passageThe purpose of the next activity we are about to launch is to examine why text complexity matters and to give you a chance to experience using text based evidence in discussions about reading, one of the six major shifts which are called for in the CCSS. I’d like for your to read Appendix A, pages 2, 3 and the top half of page four. As you read, select one passage and a back up passage in case someone else in your groups comes up with the same idea, that you think has implications for your work.
6 Three Levels of Text Protocol Form a group of three peopleIdentify a time keeper and a facilitatorOne person has up to three minutes to:Level 1- read the passage you selected aloudLevel 2 – tell about what he/she thinks about the passageLevel 3 – Tell about what implications for his/her workThe group responds for up to two minutesRepeat steps 3 and 4 until everyone has shared their passage.The structure that we will use to help facilitate a discussion based on evidence from the text is the Three Levels of text protocol. Given the short amount of time we have, it will be important to work in groups of three. I have found that this protocol is most successful when there is a time keeper who helps the group work within the suggested timeframe and a facilitator to ensure that everyone has a chance to speak. We will have 15 minutes for this protocol. 3 minutes for each person to talk about their passage, and 2 minutes for group members to respond. So if there are three people in each group, this will take us 15 minutes.
7 Debrief the processIn what ways did this protocol support the use of text-based questions and answers?Are there any reactions to the text that you would like to bring fourth to the whole group?In what ways did this protocol support the use of text-based questions and answers?This protocol required you: to read complex text, have rich discussions dependent on common text, make text based connections, use evidence based arguments in discussion. This is the the level of rigor that the CCSS require of our students..
8 Overview of Text Complexity Text complexity is defined by:QuantitativeQuantitative measures – readability and other scores of text complexity often best measured by computer software.QualitativeQualitative measures – levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands often best measured by an attentive human reader.Reader and TaskReader and Task considerations – background knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assigned often best made by educators employing their professional judgment.There are three equally important considerations when measuring text complexity. The qualitative, the quantitative, and the reader and task considerations. We will look at each of these considerations individually
9 Where do we find texts in the appropriate text complexity band? We could...Choose an excerpt of text from Appendix B:Use available resources to determine the text complexity of other materials on our own.or…To determine text complexity we might consider the exemplar texts from Appendix B of the standards. Of course, excerpts from Appendix B which of course consider the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the equation but not the reader and task considerations from the equation or alternatively, we might use a few of the tools and make a determination ourselves.Take a moment to check out Appendix B. Select a grade level that you are familiar with. What texts do you see that you currently use, which texts represent a different level of rigor?These texts are not an exhaustive list, simply a few examples to give us an understanding of the levels of complexity for the grade level.
10 Determining Text Complexity A Four-step Process:Determine the quantitative measures of the text.QualitativeQuantitativeAnalyze the qualitative measures of the text.Reflect upon the reader and task considerations.Reader and TaskOverview of the protocol. Determining text complexity is a four step process. We will go through each of these steps with an example.Recommend placement in the appropriate text complexity band.
11 Step 1: Quantitative Measures Measures such as:Word lengthWord frequencyWord difficultySentence lengthText lengthText cohesionLet’s look first at the quantitative measure. We are familiar with a number of quantitative measures such as lexiles, AR levels and others. Quantitative measures consider things such as word length, frequency of word use, difficult of words, sentence length, text length.
12 Lexile Rangle Aligned to the CC Standards LexilesThe Quantitative Measures Ranges for Text ComplexityGr. BandOld LexileLexile Rangle Aligned to the CC StandardsK - 1N/A2 – 3450 – 7904 – 5770 – 9806 – 8860 – 1010955 – 11559 – 101080 – 130511 - CCR1070 – 1220One important note is that the Common Core Standards have called for higher levels of rigor. You will see slight upward changes in the ranges for each grade level. Where do we see the greatest upwards shift?
13 Step 1: Quantitative Measures Let’s imagine we want to see where a text falls on the quantitative measures “leg” of the text complexity triangle, using the Lexile text measures.For illustrative purposes, let’s choose Harper Lee’s 1960 novel To Kill a Mockingbird.As we consider text complexity, we will use a popular novel used in many ELA courses as an example.
14 Step 1: Quantitative Measures Finding a Lexile Measure for Text:One tool that is available at Lexile.com is a look up feature where you can search a database for texts.
15 Step 1: Quantitative Measures After entering the title, we see that To Kill A Mockingbird is at a 870 lexile level.
16 Quantitative Measures Ranges for Text Complexity Grade Bands Kansas Common Core StandardsQuantitative Measures Ranges forText Complexity Grade BandsText ComplexityGrade BandsSuggestedLexile RangeSuggested ATOSBook Level Range**K-1100L – 500L*1.0 – 2.52-3450L – 790L2.0 – 4.04-5770L – 980L3.0 – 5.76-8955L – 1155L4.0 – 8.09-101080L – 1305L4.6 – 10.011-CCR1215L – 1355L4.8 – 12.0In which grade band does the 870 lexile for To Kill A Mockingbird Fall?* The K-1 suggested Lexile range was not identified by the Common Core State Standards and was added by Kansas.** Taken from Accelerated Reader and the Common Core State Standards, available at the following URL:
17 Step 1: Quantitative Measures 870LLexile Text Measure:ATOS Book Level5.6Looking at another quantitative metric, AR, we see that the level is 5.6. Do continue to use the tool that you are familiar with or your district uses. A recent study found there was no one tool that was superior.
18 Step 1: Quantitative Measures For texts not in the Lexile database, consider using the Lexile Analyzer:Registration is required (free)Allows user to receive an “estimated” Lexile scoreAccommodates texts up to 1000 words in lengthTexts of any length can be evaluated using the Professional Lexile Analyzer—educators can upgrade to this tool for free by requesting accessFor texts that are not in the Lexile Database, there is a text analyzer tool in which you can take any document saved in .txt format and determine the lexile level. This is a free application and is available online.
19 Step 2: Qualitative Measures Measures such as:Levels of meaningLevels of purposeStructureOrganizationLanguage conventionalityLanguage clarityPrior knowledge demandsNow that we have looked at the quantitative considerations, let’s turn to the qualitative measures. In the past, we have attended to this, but not necessarily in the structured manner in which the CCSS suggest.
20 Step 2: Qualitative Measures The Qualitative Measures Rubricsfor Literary and Informational Text:The rubric for literary text and the rubric for informational text allow educators to evaluate the important elements of text that are often missed by computer software that tends to focus on more easily measured factors.Qualitative measures look at important elements of the tests that are often missed by computer software which focus on the sorts of things that are quantifiable such as levels of meaning or purpose, the structure, language, prior knowledge, experiences, references to other cultures or texts, and content. We have included for you a rubric for both literary and informational texts that helps us to analyze the qualitative measures. Take a moment to peruse these tools.Because the factors for literary texts are different from information texts, these two rubrics contain different content. However, the formatting of each document is exactly the same.And because these factors represent continua rather than discrete stages or levels, numeric values are not associated with these rubrics. Instead, four points along each continuum are identified: high, middle high, middle low, and low.
21 Partner ShareHow do the demands for text complexity increase from low to high?Take a moment to peruse these tool. What are some of the key differences from low to high text complexity?
22 Step 2: Qualitative Measures Users read across the four columns for each row of checkboxes on the rubric, identifying which descriptors best match the text by marking a particular checkbox.As Appendix A states, “Few, if any, authentic texts will be low or high on all of these measures.” The goal is not for all of the checkmarks to be in a single column; the goal is to accurately reflect these factors of the text.The marked rubric can then serve as a guide as educators re-evaluate the initial placement of the work into a text complexity band. Such reflection may validate the text’s placement or may suggest that the placement needs to be changed.In fact, this marked rubric represents the evaluation of To Kill a Mockingbird completed by a committee of teachers.
23 Step 2: Qualitative Measures From examining the quantitative measures, we knew:870LLexile Text Measure:5.6ATOS Book Level:But after reflecting upon the qualitative measures, we believed:After reflecting on qualitative measures, we find that the 9th and 10th grade band is probably where this text falls. After reflecting on qualitative measures, we find that the 9th and 10th grade band is probably where To Kill a Mockingbird falls. Our initial placement of To Kill a Mockingbird into a text complexity band changed when we examined the qualitative measures. Remember, however, that we have completed only the first two legs of the text complexity triangle.The reader and task considerations still remain.
24 Step 3:Reader and Task Considerations Considerations such as: MotivationKnowledge and experiencePurpose for readingComplexity of task assigned regarding textComplexity of questions asked regarding textThe third consideration is the reader and task. By this we mean, the motivation level, knowledge and experience, purpose for reading, complexity of the task and the questions a student might be required to respond to.
25 Step 3:Reader and Task Considerations The questions included here are largely open-ended questions without single, correct answers, but help educators to think through the implications of using a particular text in the classroom.In your packet is a handout on Reader and Task Considerations. The questions included here are largely open-ended questions without single, correct answers, but help educators to think through the implications of using a particular text in the classroom. Take a moment to read the handout on Reader and Task Considers. I’d like for you to practice Anchor Standard 2 – Summarize key ideas that need to be considered.
26 An example of a completed template for To Kill a Mockingbird from Kansas. Let’s read what was said about to Kill a Mockingbird.
27 Step 4: Recommended Placement Based upon all the information—all three legs of the model—the final recommendation for To Kill a Mockingbird is….Based upon all three legs of the model, the most appropriate placement for the novel was grades 9-10.
28 Step 4: Recommended Placement In this instance, Appendix Bconfirms our evaluation of the novel. To Kill a Mockingbird is placed within the grade 9-10 text complexity band.Validating our analysis, the Common Core Standards List of Exemplar Texts (Appendix B) came to this same conclusion.
29 Step 4: Recommended Placement Template for Text Complexity Analysis and Recommended Placement Form:The one-page template provides an opportunity to record the thinking involved in recommending the placement of a specific text into a text complexity band.Keeping a record of such analysis and thinking might be useful documentation in the case that any questions arise in the future.Once the recommended placement has been decided upon, educators might also find it useful to document some the thinking that led them to their conclusion.
30 Evaluate a textUsing the Surface Tension selection from the Foss Water Unit, evaluate the text complexity.Use the four-step process to make a placement recommendationWhat level is this text?Now you will have an opportunity to evaluate a piece of informational text. In your handouts is a selection from the Foss Water Unit. I’d like for you to use the four step process to evaluate the Complexity of the text. You may try out the text analyzer at Lexile.com if someone in your group has a computer. Otherwise, I am happy to provide the Lexile to you.
31 Surface Tension Article What did you find in your analysis
32 ImplicationsWhat are some implications for your school or district as you consider the levels of text complexity called for in the Common Core Standards?Table talk
33 Building CapacityHow will you share the your new learnings about Common Core back to your building or district?Table Talk
35 Clock Hours Title: ELA Common Core Standards Class # - SEB655 First Day: May 15Total Hours: 9Cost – $18Check, Visa or Mastercard onlyCard #, Expiration Date, csc #, (add to bottom of form)Don’t have $ today? Send to ESD within 3 weeks
36 Research Base ACT, INC. Report (2006) Common Core State Standards (2010)National Reading Panel Report (2000)Publishers’ Criteria for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts and Literacy Grades K-2 and Grades 3-12 (2011)RAND Report: Reading for Understanding: Toward an R&D Program in Reading Comprehension (Snow, 2002)Reading in the Disciplines: The Challenge of Adolescent Literacy (Lee & Spratley, 2010)