2 OBJECTIVE:OBJECTIVES FOR THIS UNIT: Students will: 1) Understand what flexibility is and why it is important. 2) Understand which muscles are most important to stretch and why. 3) Understand specificity and the difference between different types of stretching. 4) Understand how the FITT principle applies to flexibility. 5) Understand safety concerns involved with stretching. 6) Learn how to test their own flexibility.
3 Flexibility Flexibility is: The elasticity or compliance of muscles when stretching.The ability to move joints through a full range of motion.A joint is a place in the body where bones come together.Examples of joints:Ankles, knees, hips, wrist, elbows, shoulders
4 What is meant by Range of Motion? Range of motion means the degree of movement you have.Gymnasts have a large range of motion around the shoulder joint.Hurdlers have a large range of motion around the hip joint.
5 Range of Motion is Limited by: Ligaments – Attach bones to bones.Tendons – Attach muscle to bone.Muscle – Surrounds, protects, and moves bones.
6 Flexibility Facts:What primary joints in the body benefit from a greater range of motion, particularly when it comes to sports participation?
7 Answer: The ankle, hip, and shoulder joints Note that these are known as ball-and-socket jointsThey permit movement in many directions (rotation, flexion, extension)
8 Flexibility Facts: The knee and elbow are known as hinge joints. They allow only an openingand closing of a joint.
9 Flexibility and Sports: For sports performance, it is important for major muscle groups to be flexible:The hamstringsThe calf musclesThe muscles of the lower backThe hip flexorsThe muscles of the shoulderFlexibility in these areas enhances performance and reduces risk of injury.
10 Why Should We Stretch? Health benefits of stretching: Improved Function / Improved HealthFlexibility helps reduce risk of injury.Stretching short muscles helps improve posture and helps to prevent post exercise pain and soreness.Good posture helps prevent or relieve back pain and helps to reduces fatigue and emotional tension .
11 Why Should We Stretch ?For elderly people, flexibility helps prevent joint aches and pains.Stretching exercises can often alleviate menstrual cramps in women.Gives athletes greater range of motion for faster forward movement and more power.
12 How is Flexibility Affected With Age or Inactivity? You will lose range of motion and flexibility as you become inactive and as you age.
13 Types of StretchingStaticDynamicBallisticPassivePNF
14 Static StretchingStatic stretching (also called active stretching), involves stretching and holding a position for seconds. It is very safe, and is commonly recommended because it is less likely to cause injury. It is especially beneficial for people who have arthritis, muscle or joint pain, or bad backs.
15 Dynamic StretchingDynamic stretching involves movement or swinging motions of joints and/or limbs through a full range of motion to reach a stretching point.Examples:Trunk TwistsArm circlesLeg swingsNeck rolls.
16 Ballistic StretchingBallistic stretching is a technique that uses "bouncing" to the desired position to increase flexibility. It can result in muscle pulls and strains because it activates the stretch reflex, rather than lessens it. This stretch is not recommended for most individuals, and especially not for individuals with chronic injuries. It is best used with athletes who use this movement in their particular sport such as gymnasts or jumpers.
17 Passive StretchingPassive stretching involves holding a stretch for 15 seconds or more as someone pushes or pulls the part of your body that you want stretched. With assisted stretching, you relax the muscle you’re trying to stretch and rely on the external force to hold you in place. You don’t usually have to work very hard to do an assisted stretch, but there’s always the risk that the external force will be stronger than you are flexible, which could cause an injury.
18 PNF Stretching Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation PNF allows the muscle to be stretched to a greater degree by increasing the proprioceptor signals through a 5- to 10-second voluntary muscle contraction followed by a 5- to 10-second voluntary muscle relaxation. With the hold-relax PNF method, the muscle is placed into a static stretch. The athlete is instructed to "hold" and contract the muscle against resistance from a partner for 10 seconds. The athlete is then instructed to "relax," and the partner slowly moves the muscle to a new static position. The technique is repeated two to three times.
19 The Overload / FITT Principle (F) Frequency Stretch each muscle group daily or at least times a week.(I) Intensity You must stretch the muscle beyond its normal length.(T) Time Hold each stretch for seconds, rest for 10 seconds and repeat 3 to 4 times.(T) Type Static Stretching for various muscles
20 Safety Concerns Always Warm-up prior to stretching. Do not stretch swollen joints or joints that are hyper-mobile.Stop if you are feeling pain.Avoid dangerous exercises(especially with the back and neck.)
21 Principle of Progression Gradually Increase the intensity –stretch farther and hold longer as you progress.
22 Principle of Specificity Flexibility exercises improve only the specific muscles at the specific joints that you stretch. To develop overall flexibility, you must stretch all the muscles that need stretching.
23 Establish Good HabitsRemember: What you do, determines what your flexibility is like. Poor posture and lack of flexibility can become permanent.
24 Flexibility is Important!!! Stretch daily and test yourself often for improvedfunction and improved health and wellness.
25 Key VocabularyBallistic stretching uses "bouncing" to the desired position to increase flexibility. Dynamic stretching involves holding a stretch for long periods. This type of stretching should be done once your body is warmed up. Flexibility is the ability to move your muscles and joints through a full range of motion. Ligaments are what attach bones to bones. Muscle is what surrounds and moves bone. Overload is when you stretch your muscles farther than normal.
26 Key Vocabulary Cont.Passive stretching involves holding a stretch for 15 seconds or more. With this type of stretching someone pushes or pulls a part of your body which you want stretched. PNF or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation is a method of stretching based on the principle that paired muscle groups (agonists and antagonists such as quadriceps and hamstrings) should be worked together so the stretch reflex is lessened and flexibility is more easily improved. Static stretching involves stretching and holding a position. Tendons attach muscle to bone.