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Unit 15: Stative Passive & Reporting Passive

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1 Unit 15: Stative Passive & Reporting Passive
Review Session Unit 15: Stative Passive & Reporting Passive

2 Review: Stative Passive
Describes situations or state of beings There is usually no action taking place Be + past participle + preposition Past participle is like an adjective Don’t usually have an active sentence form Don’t usually have a by agent Exceptions: connect and surround A peninsula is surrounded (by water) on three sides. The people are related to each other. Walnut is located in California.

3 Review: Reporting Passive
Report ideas, beliefs, or opinions 2 Forms: It + be + past participle + (that) clause Subject + be + past participle + infinitive In reporting passive, the it is unknown Usually have active sentence form Optional by agent

4 Review: Reporting Passive
It + be + past participle + (that clause) Reporting Passive It is said (that) this culture is very old. Reporting Passive with by agent It is said (by people) (that) this culture is very old. Active Voice Form People say this culture is very old.

5 Review: Reporting Passive
Subject + be + past participle + to phrase (infinitive) Reporting Passive He is thought to be the author. Reporting Passive with by agent He is thought (by scholars) to be the author. Active Voice Form Scholars think he is the author.

6 About That Remember, that is optional and often omitted in informal English. Ideas: It is reported (that) the Nacirema actually insert into their mouths a stick covered with magical paste. Beliefs: It is also believed (that) the secret to getting rid of these devils is to talk about them. Opinions: It is assumed (that) this culture is very old. Some verbs can’t be followed by a that clause like regard: It is regarded (that) these people came from Asia.

7 Note: The verb Consider
Native Americans are considered to be the real discoverers. Native Americans are considered the real discoverers. Both - consider can take an infinitive or it can be omitted.

8 Note : The verb Regard Verb: Regard
Columbus is regarded as the discoverer of America. Columbus is regarded the discoverer of America. The first one – regard is followed by as + noun clause

9 Exercise 1 For each of the ones you highlighted, let’s label them Stative Passive or Reporting Passive Was known – reporting Is believed – reporting Is owned – stative Is thought – reporting Is related – stative Was said – reporting Is not connected – stative (has optional by agent)

10 Exercise 1 Is surrounded – stative Is considered – reporting
Are known – reporting Was said – reporting Is composed of – stative Are assumed – reporting

11 Exercise 2 Owned – active voice
Claimed – reporting passive (It + be + p.p.) Found – active voice Were said – reporting passive (infinitive) Was composed of –stative passive Are also thought – reporting passive (infinitive) Are alleged – reporting passive (infinitive) Are located – stative passive Said – active voice Are known – stative passive

12 Exercise 3 Is believed – simple present, “today”
Is said – simple present, “today” Is not known – simple present, “are” Is now assumed – simple present, “now” Was also thought – simple past, “was” Are now believed – simple present, “now” Is claimed – simple present Is known – simple present, known today not in the past

13 Exercise 3 Was conjectured – simple past, “had been established”
Is/was known – simple present or simple past, most would assume simple present because of “have been popular” Is/was thought - simple present or simple past, most would assume simple present because of “have played” Can safely be assumed – modal, adverb comes after modal

14 Exercise 4 Is believed – simple present, “is”
Was previously thought – simple past, “previously,” adverb goes after Be verb Is understood – simple present, “are” Is well known – simple present, “now” or “is,” adverb goes after Be verb Might be perceived – modal Is widely confirmed – simple present, “let,” adverb goes after Be verb Has been well established – present perfect, “has” Are known – simple present, “am” Has been considered – present perfect, “has” Can be assumed – modal

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