3 Characteristics of Planning Planning is: a continuous, dynamic, future-oriented process: Setting goals Formulating strategies Detailing objectives Outlining tasks and schedules Estimating resources and budgets Evaluating progress made
4 The project will be successful, if it: Fits within the country strategy Has a clear objective Technically sound Economically sound (cost-benefit, cost- effectiveness) Is project design not too ambitious? Clear? Fiscal impact and recurrent cost What Will Make a Project Working (1) ?
5 What will Make a Project Working (2) ? Institutional capacity (Who? How? Motivation? Rules? ) Risk analysis Can I measure progress and relate it to my objectives? Logical framework, indicators, monitoring system Project management team, organization Regular and thorough supervision
6 Why Evaluate? to do better next time to replicate in different countries, sectors (careful!) to learn the how and the why to reward to justify more funding (a good banker likes success …)
7 1.Where are you now? 2.Where do you want to go to? 3.How would you arrive there? 4.How do you know that you have arrived? Planning Cycle
8 Laboratory Network Mission (example): statement - what is to be done To reduce the suffering by tuberculosis among the community and reduce transmission of tuberculosis through rapid identification of the most infectious TB patients Goal (example): state how the promise of the mission statement is to be fulfilled To provide high quality and effective laboratory services that are available, accessible and acceptable To promote and enable effective utilization of the services
9 Possible Objectives: Objectives: state when, where, who, and by how much 1. 1.To assess current strength and weakness of the organization and support systems of the laboratory network and identify requirements and plan for further improvements. 2. 2.Implement internal quality control in all microscopic diagnostic laboratories by the end of 200… 3. 3.Pilot external quality assessment activities in … selected laboratories and … governorates. 4. 4.Pilot and implement laboratory information management system in all districts.
10 Possible Objectives (2) 5. 5.Develop a plan to strengthen human resource management and development. 6. 6.Develop and pilot plan to train for supportive and effective supervision. 7. 7.Develop and implement plan to assess laboratory service users satisfaction and improve understanding and interrelations with service users. 8. 8.Strengthen network through regular meetings and learning workshops.
11 How to Reach Those Objectives? Identify all requirements that are necessary to meet the objective. These will be the main activities List these activities in a logical order Identify the sub-requirements for each activity These will be the sub activities
12 Gantt Charts Aid planning by showing all activities that must take place and when they are scheduled to be carried out. Provide graphic guide for carrying out a series of activities, showing the start date, duration, and overlap of activities. Most useful in planning and monitoring of activities.
15 How to use Gantt Charts? 1. 1.Get consensus on the mission, goal and objectives 2. 2.Specify criteria for each objective 3. 3.List all objectives and activities 4. 4.Determine when each activity must start and list them in a chronological order 5. 5.For each activity mark the starting date and the completion date
16 How to use Gantt Charts? – cont. 6. 6.Review the chart and determine if it is possible to carry out all activities that are to be conducted simultaneously 6. 6.Specify activities further: Identify resources (financial, materials, human resources, other) Define measures of verifications and required input (How to know if the aim is achieved? How to show that? Who is responsible?) 7. 7.Adjust plan and timeline if needed 9. 9.Be prepared to refine and revise the work plan: consider the first log frame as a draft
17 Key Messages Planning is continuous, dynamic and future-oriented process that determines the development goals develops the necessary objectives and actions to achieve those goals For effective planning and implementation of a project, it is necessary to: identify resources, develop a timeline, associate responsibilities, conduct evaluation, regularly refine and revise the work plan Gantt chart is a useful tool for planning and monitoring activities.